APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON.
Hughes, Van Devanter, McReynolds, Brandeis, Sutherland, Butler, Stone, Roberts, Cardozo
MR. JUSTICE SUTHERLAND delivered the opinion of the Court.
Appellant assails as invalid a statute of the State of Washington which levies an excise tax of fifteen cents per pound on all butter substitutes sold within the state. Every distributor of such butter substitutes is required to file a duly acknowledged certificate with the Director of Agriculture, containing the name under which the distributor is transacting business within the state and other specified information. Sale of any butter substitute is forbidden until such certificate is furnished. The distributor must render to the Director of Agriculture, on the fifteenth day of each month, a sworn statement of the
number of pounds of butter substitutes sold during the preceding calendar month. Section 10 of the act provides that the tax shall not be imposed on butter substitutes when sold for exportation to any other state, territory, or nation; and any payment or the doing of any act which would constitute an unlawful burden upon the sale or distribution of butter substitutes in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States is by § 13 excluded from the operation of the Act. Violation of any provision of the act is denounced as a gross misdemeanor.
Appellant is a Washington corporation, and has for many years been engaged in importing and selling "Nucoa," a form of oleomargarine. Prior to the passage of the act, it had derived a large annual net profit from sales made within the state. Since then, claiming the tax to be prohibitive, it has made no intrastate sales and no effort to do so. "Nucoa" is a nutritious and pure article of food, with a well established place in the dietary.
Suit was brought to enjoin the enforcement of the act, on the ground that it violates the Federal Constitution in the following particulars: (1) that the imposition of the tax has the effect of depriving complainant of its property without due process of law and of denying to it the equal protection of the laws, in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment; (2) that the tax is not levied for a public purpose, but for the sole purpose of burdening or prohibiting the manufacture, importation and sale of oleomargarine, in aid of the dairy industry; (3) that the act imposes an unjust and discriminatory burden upon interstate commerce; and (4) that it interferes with the power of Congress to levy and collect taxes, imposts and excises, in violation of Art. I, § 8.
The case came before a statutory court of three judges, under § 266 of the Judicial Code, as amended, 28 U. S. C., § 380, first upon an application for an interlocutory injunction, which was denied, 2 F.Supp. 414, and subsequently
for final hearing, at the conclusion of which that court made written findings of fact and conclusions of law, as required by Equity Rule 70 1/2, and entered a final decree dismissing the bill. 2 F.Supp. 417.
First. We put aside at once all of the foregoing contentions, except the one relating to due process of law, as being plainly without merit. 1. In respect of the equal protection clause it is obvious that the differences between butter and oleomargarine are sufficient to justify their separate classification for purposes of taxation. 2. That the tax is for a public purpose is equally clear, since that requirement has regard to the use which is to be made of the revenue derived from the tax, and not to any ulterior motive or purpose which may have influenced the legislature in passing the act. And a tax designed to be expended for a public purpose does not cease to be one levied for that purpose because it has the effect of imposing a burden upon one class of business enterprises in such a way as to benefit another class. 3. The act, considered as a whole, clearly negatives the idea that a burden is imposed upon interstate commerce, as the court below held. The tax is confined to sales within the state, and (§§ 10 and 13, supra) has no application to sales of oleomargarine to be either imported or exported in interstate commerce. 4. The contention that the act interferes with the taxing power of the United States seems to be based upon the supposition that the state tax is so great that it will put an end to the sale of oleomargarine within the State of Washington, and thereby ...