The opinion of the court was delivered by: Saundra Brown Armstrong, United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING DEFENDANTS' MOTION TO DISMISS, DENYING AS
MOOT PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT, AND
Plaintiffs City of Arcadia and other California cities (collectively, "Plaintiffs") bring this action against defendants United States Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"), the EPA Administrator, and the EPA Region IX Administrator (collectively, "Defendants") for injunctive and declaratory relief. The Natural Resources Defense Council, Santa Monica BayKeeper, and Heal the Bay (collectively, "Intervenors") have intervened as defendants.
Now before the Court are Defendants' Motion to Dismiss Second Amended Complaint (the "Motion to Dismiss"), in which Intervenors join, and Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Adjudication of Issues (the "Motion for Partial Summary Judgment"). Having read and considered the papers submitted and being fully informed, the Court GRANTS the Motion to Dismiss, DENIES AS MOOT the Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, and DISMISSES this action.*fn1
A. Statutory and Regulatory Background
1. Water Pollution Control Under the Clean Water Act
The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") permit program is a key means of implementing both technology-based requirements and water quality standards. 33 U.S.C. § 131 1(b)(1)(C), 1342(a)(1); 40 C.F.R. § 122.44(a), (d)(1). An NPDES permit establishes specific limits of pollution for an individual discharger. A discharge of pollutants (other than dredged or fill material) from any "point source," which is defined as "any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance . . . from which pollutants are or may be discharged," 33 U.S.C. § 1362(14), into the waters of the United States is prohibited unless that discharge complies with the discharge limits and other requirements of an NPDES permit. Id. §§ 1311(a), 1362(12). At present, 45 states, including California, are authorized to administer the NPDES permit program. State Program Status, at http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/statestats.cfm?program_id=45&view=general. In the remaining states, EPA issues the permits. 33 U.S.C. § 1342(a).
2. Total Maximum Daily Loads ("TMDLs")
Section 303(d) of the CWA and EPA's implementing regulations require states to identify and prioritize waterbodies where technology-based effluent limitations and other required controls are insufficiently stringent to attain water quality standards. See 33 U.S.C. § 1313(d); 40 C.F.R. § 130.7(b). States must develop a "total maximum daily load," or "TMDL," for each pollutant of concern in each waterbody so identified. A TMDL represents the maximum amount of pollutant "loading" that a waterbody can receive from all combined sources without exceeding applicable state water quality standards. Although the term "total maximum daily load" is not expressly defined in the CWA, EPA's regulations define a TMDL for a pollutant as the sum of: (1) the "wasteload allocations," which is the amount of pollutant that can be discharged to a waterbody from point sources, (2) the "load allocations," which represent the amount of a pollutant in a waterbody attributable to nonpoint sources or natural background, and (3) a margin of safety. 40 C.F.R. § 130.2(g)-(i), 130.7(c)(1).
Under CWA Section 303(d)(2), EPA is required to review and approve or disapprove TMDLs established by states for impaired waters within thirty days of submission. 33 U.S.C. § 1313(d)(2). If EPA disapproves a state TMDL submission, EPA must issue its own TMDL for that waterbody within thirty days. Id.
3. Implementation of TMDLs
TMDLs established under Section 303(d)(1) of the CWA function primarily as planning devices and are not self-executing. Pronsolino v. Nastri, 291 F.3d 1123, 1129 (9th Cir. 2002) ("TMDLs are primarily informational tools that allow the states to proceed from the identification of waters requiring additional planning to the required plans.") (citing Alaska Ctr. for the Env't v. Browner, 20 F.3d 981, 984-85 (9th Cir. 1994)). A TMDL does not, by itself, prohibit any conduct or require any actions. Instead, each TMDL represents a goal that may be implemented by adjusting pollutant discharge requirements in individual NPDES permits or establishing nonpoint source controls. See. e.g., Sierra Club v. Meiburg, 296 F.3d 1021, 1025 (11th Cir. 2002) ("Each TMDL serves as the goal for the level of that pollutant in the waterbody to which that TMDL applies. . . . The theory is that individual-discharge permits will be adjusted and other measures taken so that the sum of that pollutant in the waterbody is reduced to the level specified by the TMDL."); Idaho Sportsmen's Coalition v. Browner, 951 F. Supp. 962, 966 (W.D. Wash. 1996) ("TMDL development in itself does not reduce pollution. . . . TMDLs inform the design and implementation of pollution control measures."); Pronsolino, 291 F.3d at 1129 ("TMDLs serve as a link in an implementation chain that includes . . . state or local plans for point and nonpoint source pollution reduction. . . ."); Idaho Conservation League v. Thomas, 91 F.3d 1345, 1347 (9th Cir. 1996) (noting that a TMDL sets a goal for reducing pollutants). Thus, a TMDL forms the basis for further administrative actions that may require or prohibit conduct with respect to particularized pollutant discharges and waterbodies.
For point sources, limitations on pollutant loadings may be implemented through the NPDES permit system. 40 C.F.R. § 122.44(d)(1)(vii)(B). EPA regulations require that effluent limitations in NPDES permits be "consistent with the assumptions and requirements of any available wasteload allocation" in a TMDL. Id. For nonpoint sources, limitations on loadings are not subject to a federal nonpoint source permitting program, and therefore any nonpoint source reductions can be enforced against those responsible for the pollution only to the extent that a state institutes such reductions as regulatory requirements pursuant to state authority. Pronsolino v. Marcus, 91 F. Supp.2d 1337, 1355-56 (N.D. Cal. 2000), aff'd sub nom. Prosolino v. Nastri, 291 F.3d 1123 (9th Cir. 2002).
4. California Water Quality Control Statutory and
California effectuates the foregoing requirements of the CWA primarily through institutions and procedures set out in certain provisions of the California Water Code (the "Water Code"), including those of the California Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act (the "Porter-Cologne Act"), Cal. Water Code § 13000 et seq. These Water Code provisions established the State Water Resources Control Board (the "State Board") within the California Environmental Protection Agency to formulate and adopt state policy for water quality control. Cal. Water Code §§ 174-186, 13100, 13140. The State Board is designated as the state water pollution control agency for all purposes stated in the CWA and is the agency authorized to exercise powers delegated to it under the CWA. 33 U.S.C. § 1313; Cal. Water Code § 13160.
The Porter-Cologne Act established nine California Regional Water Quality Control Boards (individually, a "Regional Board"; collectively, the "Regional Boards"), Cal. Water Code §§ 13200, 13201, which operate under the purview of the State Board, see id. § 13225. Each Regional Board is comprised of nine members, id. § 13201, and is required to appoint an executive officer, id. § 13220(c), to whom the Regional Board may delegate all but some of its powers and duties, id. § 13223. Each Regional Board is required to formulate and adopt water quality control plans for all areas within the region. Id. § 13240. The State Board may approve such plan, or it may return it to the Regional Board for further submission and resubmission to the State Board. Id. § 13245. It must act on any water quality control plan within 60 days of a Regional Board's submission of such plan to the State Board, or 90 days after resubmission of such plan. Id. § 13246. A water quality control plan will not become effective unless and until it is approved by the State Board, followed by approval by the state's Office of Administrative Law ("OAL") in accordance with the appropriate procedures. Id. § 13245; Cal. Gov't Code §§ 11340.2, 11349.3, 11353(b)(5).
The State Board is required to formulate, adopt, and revise general procedures for the formulation, adoption, and implementation of water quality control plans by the Regional Boards. Cal. Water Code § 13164. The State Board may adopt water quality control plans for purposes of the CWA that include the regional water quality control plans submitted by the Regional Boards. See id. § 13170. Such plans, when adopted by the State Board, supersede any regional water quality control plans for the same waters to the extent of any conflict. Id.
B. Factual Summary and Procedural History
The events underlying the instant action were set in motion by the disposition of Heal the Bay. Inc., et al. v. Browner et al., No. C 98-4825 SBA ("Heal the Bay"), an action previously before this Court. In Heal the Bay, an individual and two environmental groups (which groups are now two of the three Intervenors in the instant action) brought a civil action against EPA, the EPA Administrator, and the EPA Region IX Administrator. Their suit primarily concerned EPA's alleged failure to perform its alleged duty under the CWA either to approve or to disapprove TMDLs submitted to EPA by the state of California.
On March 23, 1999, the Court filed an Amended Consent Decree (the "Consent Decree")*fn3 in which "EPA agree[d] to ensure that a TMDL [would] be completed for each and every pairing of a [Water Quality Limited Segment, as defined in 40 C.F.R. § 130.2(j),] and an associated pollutant in the Los Angeles Region" set forth in an attachment to the Consent Decree by specified deadlines. (Consent Decree ¶¶ 2a, 2b, 3, 3c.)*fn4 Pursuant to the Consent Decree, for each pairing EPA was required either to approve a TMDL submitted by California by a specified deadline or, if it did not approve a TMDL by the date specified, to establish a TMDL within one year of the deadline, unless California submitted and EPA approved a TMDL prior to EPA's establishing the TMDL within the one-year period. (Id. ¶ 3a.) By March 24, 2002, EPA was required either to have approved a state-submitted TMDL for trash in the Los Angeles River or to have established the TMDL itself. (Id. ¶¶ 2d 3a; id. Att. 2, 3,)*fn5
2. EPA's Issuance of TMDLs and Approval of
One of the responsibilities of the Regional Board for the Los Angeles region (the "Los Angeles Regional Board") is to develop TMDLs under the CWA for waterbodies in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties. (Decl. of Dennis Dickerson in Supp. of EPA's Mot. to Dismiss (the "Dickerson Declaration") ¶ 2.) With few exceptions, TMDLs are developed as draft TMDLs by Los Angeles Regional Board staff and then submitted to the board to be adopted as amendments to the Los Angeles Regional Board's Water Quality Control Plan, which is known as the Basin Plan. (id. Basin Plan amendments are then submitted to the State Board, and then subsequently to the OAL; after they have been approved by both of these agencies, they are submitted to EPA. (Id.)
On September 19, 2001, the Los Angeles Regional Board adopted TMDLs for trash for the Los Angeles River watershed. (Id. ¶ 3.) "Trash" was defined as man-made litter, as defined in California Government Code § 68055.1(g). (Id. Ex. A at 2). These TMDLs (the "State Trash TMDLs") were approved by the State Board on February 19, 2002, by OAL on July 16, 2002, and ultimately by EPA by letter dated August 1, 2002. (Id. ¶ 3, Ex. C; Second Am. Compl. for Injunctive & Declaratory Relief ("SAC") ¶¶ 27, 30.) Prior to its approval of the State Trash TMDLs, however, EPA issued its own TMDLs for trash for the Los Angeles River Basin (the "EPA Trash TMDLs") on March 19, 2002. (SAC ¶ 26; Decl. of David W. Smith in Supp. of EPA's Mot. to Dismiss (the "Smith Declaration") Ex. B.) The EPA's August 1, 2002, letter approving the State Trash TMDLs announced that they "supercede[d]" the EPA Trash TMDLs. (SAC ¶ 31; Smith Decl. 7, Ex. C.)
3. TMDLs Now in Effect and Implementation Provisions
Under the provisions of the TMDLs now in effect — the State Trash TMDLs — the numeric target is zero trash in the Los Angeles River. (Dickerson Decl. Ex. A at 16, 29.) Based on this target, California has determined that the wasteload allocations for trash in the Los Angeles River also must be zero. (Id.)
To achieve this goal, California has provided, along with the State Trash TMDLs, implementation provisions that specify a phasing-in of progressive reductions in municipal stormwater wasteload allocations over a ten-year period, following completion of a two-year initial baseline monitoring period. (Id. Ex. A at 21.) While the baseline monitoring program is taking place, cities will be deemed to be in compliance with the wasteload allocations provided that all of the trash that is collected during this period is disposed of in compliance with all applicable regulations. (Id. Ex. A at 27.) A baseline monitoring report is due to the Los Angeles Regional Board by February 15, 2004. (Id. ¶ 6.)*fn6
The State Trash TMDLs and incremental wasteload allocations will be implemented through the Los Angeles stormwater permit, which the Los Angeles Regional Board will need to amend to incorporate specific, enforceable permit requirements. (Id. ¶ 8.)*fn7 The implementation ions in the TMDLs allow permittees to "employ a variety of strategies to meet the progressive reductions in their Waste Load Allocations" and maintain that they "are free to implement trash reduction in any manner they choose." (Id. Ex. A at 29.) The wasteload reduction strategies are broadly classified as either end-of-pipe full capture structural controls, partial capture control systems, and/or institutional controls. (Id.) The provisions state that permittees will be deemed to be in compliance with the final wasteload allocation for their associated drainage areas if they utilize "full capture systems" that are adequately sized and maintained and maintenance records are available for inspection by the Los Angeles Regional Board. (Id. Ex. A at 30.)
Plaintiffs filed their initial complaint on June 28, 2002, in the United States District Court for the Central District of California. On August 30, 2002, they filed an amended complaint. On October 30, 2002, the case was transferred to this Court, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. Pursuant to the parties' stipulation and the Court's Order thereon, Plaintiffs filed a Second Amended Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief (the "SAC" or "Complaint") on December 12, 2002.
The SAC is the operative complaint for purposes of the Motion to Dismiss and the Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. The SAC purports to assert three claims for relief. The First Claim for Relief is ostensibly brought pursuant to a provision of the Administrative Procedure Act (the "APA"), 5 U.S.C. § 706, (SAC at 34), although certain allegations thereunder also invoke the CWA, the Regulatory Flexibility Act (the "RFA"), and the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (the "SBREFA"), (id. ¶¶ 84-85).*fn8 The First Claim for Relief alleges several violations of the APA: (1) EPA acted without authority and acted arbitrarily and capriciously by establishing the EPA Trash TMDLs prior to receiving for review the State Trash TMDLs, (SAC ¶¶ 78-79); (2) EPA acted without authority and arbitrarily and capriciously by reviewing and approving the State Trash TMDLs because EPA had already established the EPA Trash TMDLs, (id ¶¶ 80, 83); (3) EPA acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in excess of its jurisdiction with regard to the manner by which it established the EPA Trash TMDLs, (id. ¶¶ 81-82); (4) the collective actions of California and EPA relating to issuance of the EPA Trash TMDLs and subsequent approval of the State Trash TMDLs constitute a "de facto TMDL procedure" that is arbitrary, capricious, and contrary to law, (id. ¶ 84-86);*fn9 and (5) EPA acted arbitrarily and capriciously by approving the State Trash TMDLs because those TMDLs were "patently defective" and established not in accordance with the procedures of the CWA and California law, (id. ¶ 87).*fn10 The Second Claim for Relief challenges the validity of two alleged agency actions, the EPA Trash TMDLs and the "de facto TMDL procedure," under the APA, 5 U.S.C. § 551 et seq.; the RFA, 5 U.S.C. § 601 et seq.; and the SBREFA, 5 U.S.C. § 801 et seq. (SAC at 40; id. ¶¶ 89-99.) The violations alleged under the Second Claim for Relief, ...