On Writ Of Certiorari To The United States Court Of Appeals For The Fourth Circuit
Petitioner Nken sought an order from the Fourth Circuit staying his removal to Cameroon while his petition for review of a Board of Immigration Appeals order denying his motion to reopen removal proceedings was pending. Nken acknowledged that Circuit precedent required an alien seeking such a stay to satisfy 8 U. S. C. §1252(f)(2), which sharply restricts the availability of injunctions blocking the removal of an alien from this country, but argued that a court's authority to stay a removal order should instead be controlled by the traditional criteria governing stays. The Court of Appeals denied the stay motion without comment.
Held: Traditional stay factors, not the demanding §1252(f)(2) standard, govern a court of appeals' authority to stay an alien's removal pending judicial review. Pp. 3-17.
(a) This question stems from changes made in the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), which "repealed the old judicial-review scheme set forth in [8 U. S. C.] §1105a [(1994 ed.),] and instituted a new (and significantly more restrictive) one in ... §1252," Reno v. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Comm., 525 U. S. 471, 475 (AAADC). Because courts of appeals lacked jurisdiction before IIRIRA to review the removal order of an alien who had already left the United States, see §1105a(c), most aliens who appealed such a decision were given an automatic stay of the removal order pending judicial review, see §1105a(a)(3). Three changes IIRIRA made are of particular importance here. First, the repeal of §1105a allows courts to adjudicate a petition for review even if the alien is removed while the petition is pending. Second, the presumption of an automatic stay was repealed and replaced with a provision stating that "[s]ervice of the petition ... does not stay the removal of an alien pending the court's decision on the petition, unless the court orders otherwise." §1252(b)(3)(B). Finally, IIRIRA provided that "no court shall enjoin the removal of any alien ... unless [he] shows by clear and convincing evidence that the entry or execution of such order is prohibited as a matter of law." §1252(f)(2). Pp. 3-5.
(b) The parties dispute what standard a court should apply when determining whether to grant a stay. Petitioner argues that the "traditional" stay standard should apply, meaning a court should consider "(1) whether the stay applicant has made a strong showing that he is likely to succeed on the merits; (2) whether [he] will be irreparably injured absent a stay; (3) whether issuance of the stay will substantially injure the other parties ... ; and (4) where the public interest lies." Hilton v. Braunskill, 481 U. S. 770, 776. The Government argues that §1252(f) should govern, meaning an alien must show "by clear and convincing evidence that the entry or execution of [the removal] order is prohibited as a matter of law." Pp. 5-6.
(c) An appellate court's power to hold an order in abeyance while it assesses the order's legality has been described as inherent, and part of a court's "traditional equipment for the administration of justice." Scripps-Howard Radio, Inc. v. FCC, 316 U. S. 4, 9-10. That power allows a court to act responsibly, by ensuring that the time the court takes to bring considered judgment to bear on the matter before it does not result in irreparable injury to the party aggrieved by the order under review. But a stay "is not a matter of right, even if irreparable injury might otherwise result to the appellant." Virginian R. Co. v. United States, 272 U. S. 658, 672. The parties and the public, while entitled to both careful review and a meaningful decision, are also entitled to the prompt execution of orders that the legislature has made final. Pp. 6-7.
(d) Section 1252(f) does not refer to "stays," but rather to authority to "enjoin the removal of any alien." An injunction and a stay serve different purposes. The former is the means by which a court tells someone what to do or not to do. While in a general sense many orders may be considered injunctions, the term is typically used to refer to orders that operate in personam. By contrast, a stay operates upon the judicial proceeding itself, either by halting or postponing some portion of it, or by temporarily divesting an order of enforceability. An alien seeking a stay of removal pending adjudication of a petition for review does not ask for a coercive order against the government, but instead asks to temporarily set aside the removal order. That kind of stay, "relat[ing] only to the conduct or progress of litigation before th[e] court[,] ordinarily is not considered an injunction." Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. v. Mayacamas Corp., 485 U. S. 271, 279. That §1252(f)(2) does not comfortably cover stays is evident in Congress's use of the word "stay" in subsection (b)(3)(B) but not subsection (f)(2), particularly since those subsections were enacted as part of a unified overhaul of judicial review. The statute's structure also clearly supports petitioner's reading: Because subsection (b)(3)(B) changed the basic rules covering stays of removal, the natural place to locate an amendment to the standard governing stays would have been subsection (b)(3)(B), not a provision four subsections later that makes no mention of stays. Pp. 8-12.
(e) Subsection (f)(2)'s application would not fulfill the historic office of a stay, which is to hold the matter under review in abeyance to allow the appellate court sufficient time to decide the merits. Under subsection (f)(2), a stay would only be granted after the court in effect decides the merits, in an expedited manner. The court would have to do so under a "clear and convincing evidence" standard that does not so much preserve the availability of subsequent review as render it redundant. Nor would subsection (f)(2) allow courts "to prevent irreparable injury to the parties or to the public" pending review, Scripps-Howard, 316 U. S., at 9; the subsection on its face does not permit any consideration of harm, irreparable or otherwise. In short, applying §1252(f)(2) in the stay context would result in something that does not remotely look like a stay. As in Scripps-Howard, the Court is loath to conclude that Congress would, "without clearly expressing such a purpose, deprive the Court of Appeals of its customary power to stay orders under review." Id., at 11. The Court is not convinced Congress did so in §1252(f)(2). Pp. 12-13.
(f) The parties dispute what the traditional four-factor standard entails. A stay is not a matter of right, and its issuance depends on the circumstances of a particular case. The first factor, a strong showing of a likelihood of success on the merits, requires more than a mere possibility that relief will be granted. Similarly, simply showing some possibility of irreparable injury fails to satisfy the second factor. See Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 555 U. S. ___, ___. Although removal is a serious burden for many aliens, that burden alone cannot constitute the requisite irreparable injury. An alien who has been removed may continue to pursue a petition for review, and those aliens who prevail can be afforded effective relief by facilitation of their return, along with restoration of the immigration status they had upon removal. The third and fourth factors, harm to the opposing party and the public interest, merge when the Government is the opposing party. In considering them, courts must be mindful that the Government's role as the respondent in every removal proceeding does not make its interest in each one negligible. There is always a public interest in prompt execution of removal orders, see AAADC, supra, at 490, and that interest may be heightened by circumstances such as a particularly dangerous alien, or an alien who has substantially prolonged his stay by abusing the processes provided to him. A court asked to stay removal cannot simply assume that the balance of hardships will weigh heavily in the applicant's favor. Pp. 13-16.
Roberts, C. J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Stevens, Scalia, Kennedy, Souter, Ginsburg, and Breyer, JJ., joined. Kennedy, J., filed a concurring opinion, in which Scalia, J., joined. Alito, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Thomas, J., joined.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Chief Justice Roberts
It takes time to decide a case on appeal. Sometimes a little; sometimes a lot. "No court can make time stand still" while it considers an appeal, Scripps-Howard Radio, Inc. v. FCC, 316 U. S. 4, 9 (1942), and if a court takes the time it needs, the court's decision may in some cases come too late for the party seeking review. That is why it "has always been held, ... that as part of its traditional equipment for the administration of justice, a federal court can stay the enforcement of a judgment pending the outcome of an appeal." Id., at 9-10 (footnote omitted). A stay does not make time stand still, but does hold a ruling in abeyance to allow an appellate court the time necessary to review it.
This case involves a statutory provision that sharply restricts the circumstances under which a court may issue an injunction blocking the removal of an alien from this country. The Court of Appeals concluded, and the Government contends, that this provision applies to the granting of a stay by a court of appeals while it considers the legality of a removal order. Petitioner disagrees, and maintains that the authority of a court of appeals to stay an order of removal under the traditional criteria governing stays remains fully intact, and is not affected by the statutory provision governing injunctions. We agree with petitioner, and vacate and remand for application of the traditional criteria.
Jean Marc Nken, a citizen of Cameroon, entered the United States on a transit visa in April 2001. In December 2001, he applied for asylum under 8 U. S. C. §1158, withholding of removal under §1231(b)(3), and deferral of removal under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, art. 3, S. Treaty Doc. No. 100-20, p. 20, 1465 U. N. T. S. 85, see 8 CFR §208.17 (2008). In his application, Nken claimed he had been persecuted in the past for participation in protests against the Cameroonian Government, and would be subject to further persecution if he returns to Cameroon.
An Immigration Judge denied Nken relief after concluding that he was not credible. The Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) affirmed, and also declined to remand for consideration of Nken's application for adjustment of status based on his marriage to an American citizen. After the BIA denied a motion to reopen, Nken filed a petition for review of the BIA's removal order in the Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. His petition was denied. Nken then filed a second motion to reopen, which was also denied, followed by a second petition for review, which was denied as well.
Nken filed a third motion to reopen, this time alleging that changed circumstances in Cameroon made his persecution more likely. The BIA denied the motion, finding that Nken had not presented sufficient facts or evidence of changed country conditions. Nken again sought review in the Court of Appeals, and also moved to stay his deportation pending resolution of his appeal. In his motion, Nken recognized that Fourth Circuit precedent required an alien seeking to stay a removal order to show by "clear and convincing evidence" that the order was "prohibited as a matter of law," 8 U. S. C. §1252(f)(2). See Teshome-Gebreegziabher v. Mukasey, 528 F. 3d 330 (CA4 2008). Nken argued, however, that this standard did not govern. The Court of Appeals denied Nken's motion without comment. App. 74.
Nken then applied to this Court for a stay of removal pending adjudication of his petition for review, and asked in the alternative that we grant certiorari to resolve a split among the Courts of Appeals on what standard governs a request for such a stay. Compare Teshome-Gebreegziabher, supra, at 335, and Weng v. U. S. Attorney General, 287 F. 3d 1335 (CA11 2002), with Arevalo v. Ashcroft, 344 F. 3d 1 (CA1 2003), Mohammed v. Reno, 309 F. 3d 95 (CA2 2002), Douglas v. Ashcroft, 374 F. 3d 230 (CA3 2004), Tesfamichael v. Gonzales, 411 F. 3d 169 (CA5 2005), Bejjani v. INS, 271 F. 3d 670 (CA6 2001), Hor v. Gonzales, 400 F. 3d 482 (CA7 2005), and Andreiu v. Ashcroft, 253 F. 3d 477 (CA9 2001) (en banc). We granted certiorari, and stayed petitioner's removal pending further order of this Court. Nken v. Mukasey, 555 U. S. ___ (2008).
The question we agreed to resolve stems from changes in judicial review of immigration procedures brought on by the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), 110 Stat. 3009-546, which substantially amended the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U. S. C. §1101 et seq. When Congress passed IIRIRA, it "repealed the old judicial-review scheme set forth in [8 U. S. C.] §1105a and instituted a new (and significantly more restrictive) one in 8 U. S. C. §1252." Reno v. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Comm., 525 U. S. 471, 475 (1999) (AAADC). The new review system substantially limited the availability of judicial review and streamlined all challenges to a removal order into a single proceeding: the petition for review. See, e.g., 8 U. S. C. §1252(a)(2) (barring review of certain removal orders and exercises of executive discretion); §1252(b)(3)(C) (establishing strict filing and briefing deadlines for review proceedings); §1252(b)(9) (consolidating challenges into petition for review). Three changes effected by IIRIRA are of particular importance to this case.
Before IIRIRA, courts of appeals lacked jurisdiction to review the deportation order of an alien who had already left the United States. See §1105a(c) (1994 ed.) ("An order of deportation or of exclusion shall not be reviewed by any court ... if [the alien] has departed from the United States after the issuance of the order"). Accordingly, an alien who appealed a decision of the BIA was typically entitled to remain in the United States for the duration of judicial review. This was achieved through a provision providing most aliens with an automatic stay of their removal order while judicial review was pending. See §1105a(a)(3) ("The service of the petition for review ... shall stay the deportation of the alien pending determination of the petition by the court, unless the court otherwise directs").
IIRIRA inverted these provisions to allow for more prompt removal. First, Congress lifted the ban on adjudication of a petition for review once an alien has departed. See IIRIRA §306(b), 110 Stat. 3009-612 (repealing §1105a). Second, because courts were no longer prohibited from proceeding with review once an alien departed, see Dada v. Mukasey, 554 U. S. 1, ___ (2008) (slip op., at 19-20), Congress repealed the presumption of an automatic stay, and replaced it with the following: "Service of the petition on the officer or employee does not stay the removal of an alien pending the court's decision on the petition, unless the court orders otherwise." 8 U. S. C. §1252(b)(3)(B) (2006 ed.).
Finally, IIRIRA restricted the availability of injunctive relief:
"Limit on injunctive relief
"Regardless of the nature of the action or claim or of the identity of the party or parties bringing the action, no court (other than the Supreme Court) shall have jurisdiction or authority to enjoin or restrain the operation of the provisions of part IV of this subchapter, as amended by [IIRIRA], other than with respect to the application of such provisions to an individual alien against whom proceedings under such part have been initiated.
"Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no court shall enjoin the removal of any alien pursuant to a final order under this section unless the alien shows by clear and convincing evidence that the entry or execution of ...