Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California Lawrence K. Karlton, District Judge, Presiding D.C. No. CV-02-01464-LKK.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Hug, Circuit Judge
Argued and Submitted July 16, 2008 -- San Francisco, California
Before: Before: Procter Hug, Jr., Richard A. Paez, and Marsha S. Berzon, Circuit Judges.
In this case we consider whether portions of certain California statutes and regulations violate the dormant Commerce Clause. The challenged laws prevent licensed opticians*fn1 from having specified business relationships with or offering ser- vices in the same locations as licensed optometrists and ophthalmologists.
The National Association of Optometrists and Opticians, LensCrafters, Inc., and Eye Care Centers of America, Inc. challenged a portion of the California statutes and regulations as violating the dormant Commerce Clause and moved for summary judgment. California's Attorney General and Department of Consumer Affairs (collectively "the State") opposed the motion. The district court granted summary judgment for the plaintiffs and entered the following declaratory judgment and injunction:
It is hereby DECLARED that California Business & Professions Code, §§ 655, 2556 and 3103, and two companion regulations, 16 Cal. Code of Regs., Title 16 §§ 1399.251 and 1514, are unconstitutional as they violate the dormant aspect of the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, to the extent that individually, or taken together, they prohibit optical companies from offering prescription eyewear at the same location in which eye examinations are provided, and from advertising that eyewear and eye examinations are available in the same location.
Defendants are hereby permanently ENJOINED and PROHIBITED from enforcing California Business & Professions Code, §§ 655, 2556 and 3103, and two companion regulations, 16 Cal. Code of Regs., Title 16 §§ 1399.251 and 1514, either individually, or taken together, so as to prohibit optical companies from offering prescription eyewear at the same location in which eye examinations are provided, and from advertising that eyewear and eye examinations are available in the same location.
The defendants timely appealed. We have jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1291, and we reverse and remand for further proceedings.
As a preliminary matter, the State challenges the standing of two of the appellees, Eye Care Centers of America and the National Association of Optometrists and Opticians. It does not, however, challenge LensCrafters' standing. As a general rule, in an injunctive case this court need not address standing of each plaintiff if it concludes that one plaintiff has standing. See Preminger v. Peake, 552 F.3d 757, 764 (9th Cir. 2008). Because LensCrafters unquestionably has standing, we must reach the question of whether the California laws violate the ...