Ct.App. 3 Crim. C052606 Trinity County Super. Ct. No. 05F169 Judge: James P. Woodward
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Moreno, J.
We consider here whether a defendant must spend at least six days in custody prior to being sentenced to be entitled to ―conduct credit‖ pursuant to Penal Code section 4019. We conclude that the statute does not require that a defendant spend six days in presentence confinement in order to be entitled to receive conduct credit pursuant to section 4019. Rather, the statute entitles a defendant to conduct credit if he or she is sentenced to, or otherwise committed for, a period of at least six days, without regard to the duration of presentence confinement.
Defendant was arrested on December 15, 2005, and spent five days in county jail before being released on his own recognizance on December 19, 2005. On December 19, 2005, a complaint was filed against defendant alleging that he received stolen property in violation of Penal Code*fn1 section 496, subdivision (a), cultivated marijuana in violation of Health and Safety Code section 11358, and was a felon in possession of a firearm in violation of section 12021, subdivision (a)(1).
On February 8, 2006, defendant pled nolo contendere to felony receipt of stolen property in violation of section 496, subdivision (a), and possession of concentrated cannabis in violation of Health and Safety Code section 11357, subdivision (a), which is a lesser included offense of the charged offense of marijuana cultivation. On April 5, 2006, defendant was sentenced to state prison for the midterm of two years for receiving stolen property in violation of section 496, subdivision (a), and to a consecutive term of one-third of the midterm, or eight months, for possession of concentrated cannabis in violation of Health and Safety Code section 11357, subdivision (a). Execution of defendant's two year and eight month sentence was suspended, and defendant was placed on probation for five years, on condition that he serve 365 days in county jail, ―with credit for time served of five days, based on actual time of five days, and no conduct credits.‖
Defendant appealed, arguing that under section 4019, subdivision (f), he should have received a credit of seven days - two days of conduct credit in addition to the five days he actually served. In an unpublished decision, the Court of Appeal disagreed with defendant, concluding that section 4019, subdivision (e) precluded defendant from receiving conduct credit for the five days he had served because he had not spent six days in presentence*fn2 custody. The Court of Appeal concluded that the language of section 4019, subdivision (e) unambiguously requires that a defendant serve six days in presentence custody in order to receive conduct credit under section 4019.
We granted review to determine whether defendant was entitled to conduct credit under section 4019 based upon the five days he spent in custody prior to being committed to county jail for 365 days as a condition of probation.
― ‗The presentence credit scheme, section 4019, focuses primarily on encouraging minimal cooperation and good behavior by persons temporarily detained in local custody before they are convicted, sentenced, and committed . . . .' ‖ (People v. Brown (2004) 33 Cal.4th 382, 405, quoting People v. Buckhalter (2001) 26 Cal.4th 20, 36.) Section 4019 describes the two types of conduct credit available to prisoners ―confined in or committed to‖ county or city jails, industrial farms, or road camps.*fn3 Section 4019, subdivision (b) describes credit for worktime and provides that, ―for each six-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted from his or her period of confinement unless . . . the prisoner has refused to satisfactorily perform labor as assigned . . . .‖ Section 4019, subdivision (c), the good behavior provision, similarly provides that, ―[f]or each six-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted‖ from each six-day period of confinement unless the prisoner fails to comply with applicable rules and regulations.*fn4
Section 4019, subdivision (f) clarifies that subdivisions (b) and (c) are to be read together to provide a total of two days of conduct credit for every four-day period of incarceration: ―It is the intent of the Legislature that if all days are earned under this section, a term of six days will be deemed to have been served for every four days spent in actual custody.‖ Section 4019, subdivision (e) sets forth the minimum length of commitment for the statute to apply: ―No deduction may be made under this section unless the person is committed for a period of six days or longer.‖
The Court of Appeal concluded that section 4019, subdivision (e) unambiguously provided that a defendant must spend a minimum of six days in presentence custody in order to be entitled to conduct credit. When construing a statute, our primary task is to ascertain the Legislature's intent. (Olson v. Automobile Club of Southern California (2008) 42 Cal.4th 1142, 1147.) We begin our task by determining whether the language of the statute is ambiguous. (Ibid.) A statutory provision is ambiguous if it is susceptible of two reasonable interpretations. (Hoechst Celanese Corp. v. Franchise Tax Bd. (2001) 25 Cal.4th 508, 519.) ― ‗If there is no ambiguity in the language, we presume the Legislature meant what it said and the plain meaning of the statute governs.' (People v. Snook (1997) 16 Cal.4th 1210, 1215.)‖ (Diamond Multimedia Systems, Inc. v. Superior Court (1999) 19 Cal.4th 1036, 1047.) While we agree that section 4019 is susceptible of only one reasonable interpretation, we conclude, contrary to the Court of Appeal's construction, that section 4019, subdivision (e) sets forth a minimum duration of ordered commitment, not a minimum term of presentence incarceration. A defendant who spends at least four days in presentence custody is entitled to conduct credit under section 4019 if that defendant is sentenced or otherwise ―committed‖ (as described below) for a period of at least six days, assuming he or she satisfies the eligibility criteria set forth in the statute.
Proper interpretation of section 4019 rests on the difference between the terms ―committed‖ and ―confined.‖ A defendant is not entitled to conduct credit unless he or she ―is committed for a period of six days or longer.‖ (§ 4019, subd. (e).) ―Committed,‖ as relevant here, means a judicial officer's order sending a defendant to jail, prison, or other form of qualifying confinement. (See, e.g., Black's Law Dict. (8th ed. 2004) p. 288 [―commit‖ defined as ―[t]o send (a person) to prison‖ or jail]; see also § 859a, subd. (a) [―the magistrate . . . shall immediately commit the defendant‖]; §§ 862, 873, 881, subds. (a), (b).) Thus, a defendant is not entitled to conduct credit unless his or her total commitment (be it a sentence, probation condition, judgment of imprisonment, or other enumerated form of commitment set forth in section 4019 subdivision (a)(1)-(4))is at least six days. In contrast, the term ―confinement‖ is defined as ―the state of being imprisoned or restrained.‖ (Black's Law Dict., supra, at p. 318.) Subdivision (e), which uses the word ―committed‖ but not the word ―confined,‖ requires only that a person be ordered to spend at least six days in custody before the statute is applicable, not that a person must actually spend a full six days in custody prior to sentencing.
The plain language of the statute demonstrates that the Legislature was mindful of the distinction between the terms ―confined‖ and ―committed.‖ In each subdivision of section 4019 that contains the word ―committed‖ - other than subdivision (e) - the word ―confined‖ appears alongside the word ―committed.‖ (§ 4019, subds. (a)(1)-(3), (b), (c) [―a prisoner is confined in or committed to . . .‖].) Each of these subdivisions refers to the order imposed upon a defendant to spend a period of time in custody (―committed to‖) and to the actual period of incarceration (―confined in‖). Section 4019, subdivision (e), by contrast, addresses only a prisoner's commitment, establishing a minimum eligibility for application of the statute such that conduct credit is unavailable unless a prisoner is ordered to spend at least six days in custody. Section 4019, subdivision (e) cannot be understood to require that a prisoner spend six days in presentence confinement before he or she is entitled to receive conduct credit; if that were the case, the Legislature could have so indicated by using the word ―confined‖ rather than the word ―committed.‖
The People agree that defendant was ultimately entitled to conduct credit because he was committed for a period of more than six days, but argue that defendant was not entitled to conduct credit at the time of his sentencing because he had not yet spent six days in confinement.*fn5 The People argue that a prisoner cannot earn conduct credit pursuant to section 4019 until his or her sixth day of confinement. The People place emphasis on the word ―deducted‖ in subdivisions (b) and (c), arguing that because the statute indicates that one day ―shall be deducted‖ for good behavior and work time, conduct credit accrues during the first five days of confinement but is not earned and available until the sixth day, when a deduction can occur. Thus, the ...