The opinion of the court was delivered by: Frank C. Damrell, Jr. United States District Judge
This matter is before the court on defendants State of California, California Gambling Control Commission (the "Commission" or "CGCC"), and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's (collectively, the "defendants") motion for reconsideration, pursuant to Rule 54(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure,*fn1 of the court's April 22, 2009 Memorandum and Order (the "April 22 Order"), granting in part and denying in part the parties' motions for summary judgment and motion for judgment on the pleadings as to six of the seven claims at issue in this litigation. Specifically, defendants seek reconsideration of the court's determination of plaintiffs' claims regarding the size of the Gaming Device license pool under the 1999 Compact. Plaintiff Cachil Dehe Band of Wintun Indians of the Colusa Indian Community ("Colusa") and plaintiff-intervenor Picayune Rancheria of the Chukchansi Indians' ("Picayune") (collectively, "plaintiffs") oppose the motions. For the reasons set forth herein,*fn2 defendants' motion is DENIED.
Plaintiff Colusa is an American Indian Tribe with a governing body duly recognized by the Secretary of the Interior. Plaintiff-intervenor Picayune is also a federally recognized Indian tribe. Colusa and Picayune entered into similar Class III Gaming Compacts (the "Compacts" or "Compact") with the State of California (the "State") in 1999, which were ratified by the Legislature on September 10, 1999; both Colusa and Picayune's Compacts have been in effect since May 16, 2000. 55 other tribes (the "Compact Tribes") also executed virtually identical compacts with the State. At their core, these compacts authorize Class III gaming pursuant to certain restrictions.
The Compact sets a statewide maximum on the number of Gaming Devices that all Compact Tribes may license in the aggregate. (Id.) This statewide maximum is determined by a formula set forth in the Compact. (Id.; PUF ¶ 3.) Specifically, the Compact provides:
The maximum number of machines that all Compact Tribes in the aggregate may license pursuant to this Section shall be a sum equal to 350 multiplied by the Number of Non-Compact tribes as of September 1, 1999, plus the difference between 350 and the lesser number authorized under Section 4.3.1.
(Compact § 184.108.40.206(a)(1)). The parties disagreed over the total number of Gaming Device licenses authorized by this equation.
In the April 22 Memorandum and Order, the court set forth the following facts that were relevant to plaintiffs' claims regarding the license pool:
After the April 1999 meeting between Davis and the federally recognized tribes, three main groups of tribes coalesced for the purpose of conducting compact negotiations with the State. (Supp. Decl. of George Forman ("Supp. Forman Decl." [Docket #98], filed Apr. 8, 2009, ¶ 5). Colusa and Picayune were part of the largest group, the United Tribes Compact Steering Committee (the "UTCSC"), which consisted of more than 60 tribes located throughout California. (Id.) Colusa's counsel, George Forman, was one of the tribal attorneys designated to participate in negotiations as a spokesperson for the UTCSC tribes. (Id. ¶ 6). Judge William A. Norris ("Norris"), then Special Counsel to Governor Davis for Tribal Affairs, acted as the lead negotiator for California. (Decl. of William A. Norris ("Norris Decl.") [Docket #95-3], filed Mar. 19, 2009, ¶ 2). Judge Shelleyanne W.L. Chang ("Chang"), then Senior Deputy Legal Affairs Secretary for the Office of Governor Gray Davis, assisted with negotiations. (PUF ¶ 1).
Negotiations began in April 1999. (Id. ¶ 7). On May 26, 1999, Norris negotiated with the USTSC regarding a discussion document prepared by the state and submitted to the tribes on May 21, 1999. (Id. ¶¶ 8-9). During this negotiation, Norris conveyed the Governor's concern about limiting growth. (Ex. A to Supp. Forman Decl. at 37:17-38:12). However, Norris agreed that he, on behalf of the Governor, had "grave reservations, if not opposition, to a cap in the aggregate." (Id. at 37:1-2). Negotiations continued throughout the summer of 1999. (Norris Decl. ¶¶ 9-10). Norris asserts that during the compact negotiations in August and September 1999, the State's negotiations team made itself available to meet with every tribal representative who wanted to participate in the ongoing negotiations. (Id. ¶ 10).
During the negotiating process, Norris asserts that he repeatedly advised the tribes and their attorneys that a statewide cap of 44,798 Gaming Devices, including those already in operation by tribes, could not be exceeded. (Id. ¶ 15). Wayne R. Mitchum, Chairman of the Colusa Indian Community Council at all relevant times, concedes that the State's negotiating team represented that the Governor was committed to imposing reasonable limits on the expansion of gaming in California; however, per-tribe and statewide limits on Gaming Devices was not proposed until early September 1999. (Decl. of Wayne R. Mitcum ("Mitchum Decl") [Docket #59-6], filed Jan. 20, 2009, ¶¶ 1, 10). In order to address objections that the Compact inequitably benefitted tribes who had unlawfully operated substantially more than 350 Gaming Devices prior to entering into a compact, Norris and Chang drafted § 220.127.116.11(a)(1), which sets forth an aggregate pool of available licenses. (Norris Decl. ¶¶ 15-16). Meanwhile, the USTSC held extensive internal discussions about fair and appropriate minimum allocations of gaming devices, how to set per-tribe maximum limits, and how to allocate a limited number of gaming devices. (Mitchum Decl. ¶ 12).
On September 9, 1999, Norris and Chang presented the draft of § 18.104.22.168 to a group of tribal attorneys who had played key roles in the negotiating process. (Id. ¶ 17). While one of these attorneys, Jerome Levine, was a tribal representative for the USTSC, (Ex. A to Supp. Forman Decl. at 2), there is no evidence that he was acting on behalf of the USTSC. Later that evening, Norris presented the entire draft compact to the assembled representatives of the California Indian tribes for approval. (Norris Decl. ¶ 18). He asserts that no questions were asked concerning the number of Gaming Devices authorized under the compact. (Id.) Mitchum asserts that he heard tribal leaders and other representatives ask the State's negotiators to explain the meaning, but the State's negotiators refused to explain it. (Mitchum Decl. ¶ 16). The State's negotiating team announced that tribal representatives had until approximately 10:00 p.m. that evening to accept the proposal. (Mitchum Decl. ¶ 13). This deadline was later extended until midnight. (Id.)
Once the State's negotiators left the room, Mitchum participated in an extensive discussion with the other tribal leaders and attorneys about how many Gaming Devices the proposed compact allowed. (Id. ¶ 17). Mitchum understood the compact to authorize approximately 56,000 Gaming Device licenses in addition to those already being operated by tribes. (Id.) Mitchum signed the required letter of intent on Colusa's behalf before expiration of the deadline. (Id. ¶ 13).
On or about September 10, 1999, at the request of the Governor's Press Office, Chang prepared an information sheet entitled, "Total Possible Number of Slot Machines Statewide Under the Model Tribal-State Gaming Compact Negotiated by Governor Davis and California Indian Tribes." (PUF ¶ 5). The Information Sheet was made available to the news media and described the purported intent of § 22.214.171.124(a)(1) of the Compact to authorize a total of 44,448 slot machines statewide, including those already in operation. (See PUF ¶ 6). As such, the Compact allowed for 23,450 additional licenses. (PUF ¶ 6). Chang asserts that the Governor's Office received no complaints or comments concerning the accuracy of the press release. (PUF ¶ 8).
By letter dated November 9, 1999, Elizabeth G. Hill ("Hill"), writing for the Legislative Analyst, determined that § 126.96.36.199(a)(1) authorized 60,000 machines in addition to those already in operation, for a total in excess of 113,000 machines. (Stip. R. at 60-62). Hill, however, cautioned that "different interpretations of the language in the compact could result in significantly different totals." (Stip. R. at 61). Subsequently, by letter dated December 6, 1999, Hill determined that the total amount of machines authorized statewide was 61,700, including those authorized ...