Petition for writ of review from an order and decision of the Workers' Compensation Appeals Board. Affirmed. (WCAB Nos. SDO0342658 & SDO0343898).
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Nares, Acting P. J.
CERTIFIED FOR PUBLICATION
At the time this case arose, Tania Esquivel, a correctional officer receiving benefits under the Workers' Compensation Act (the Act), resided in the City of San Diego and was being treated for her industrial injuries by medical providers located within eight miles of her home. For reasons unrelated to her need for that treatment, Esquivel drove about 130 miles to her mother's home in Hesperia, in San Bernardino County. Esquivel suffered serious new injuries when she drove through a stop sign in Hesperia while en route from her mother's home to the San Diego offices of the medical providers.
The workers' compensation judge (the WCJ) found that Esquivel's motor vehicle accident injuries were a compensable consequence of her existing industrial injuries and awarded her temporary disability indemnity and additional medical benefits. Respondents Corrections Corporation of America San Diego Detention and New Hampshire Insurance Company's petitioned the Workers' Compensation Appeals Board (the Board) for reconsideration of the WCJ's findings and award in favor of Esquivel. The Board issued an order granting respondents' reconsideration petition and reversed the WCJ's findings and award, finding that the accident occurred too remotely from Esquivel's home and her destination to reasonably assign the risk of injury en route to the employer. Esquivel then petitioned this court for review of the Board's order and decision. We granted review.
This is not the typical case in which an industrially injured employee suffers new injuries while traveling a relatively short distance to a medical provider's office for treatment of the existing injury. Here, Esquivel suffered her new injuries shortly after she began an unusually long trip (over 100 miles) to her medical appointments from a location far away from her home, her place of work, and her medical providers' offices.
The issue we must decide is whether there is a reasonable geographic limitation on an employer's risk of incurring compensability liability under the Act with respect to new injuries an employee suffers while en route to or from a medical appointment for examination or treatment of an existing industrial injury. We conclude there is and hold that the employer bears this risk while the employee is traveling a reasonable distance, within a reasonable geographic area, to or from the medical appointment. Under our holding, a new injury that an employee suffers while traveling a reasonable distance, within a reasonable geographic area, to or from a medical appointment for examination or treatment of his or her existing compensable injury is also compensable under the Act. In the absence of a specific statutory or regulatory test for determining both the boundaries of the applicable "reasonable geographic area" limitation and what constitutes a "reasonable distance," we also hold that such determinations must be made on a case-by-case basis considering all relevant circumstances.
Applying our holdings to the facts of this case, we conclude the Board did not err in finding that Esquivel's new injuries are not compensable under the Act because they clearly occurred outside the reasonable geographic area of her employer's compensability risk. Accordingly, we affirm the Board's order and decision.
FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND
A. Esquivel's Industrial Injuries
It is undisputed that in 2003 and 2005, Esquivel sustained injuries arising out of, and in the course of, her employment with Corrections Corporation of America San Diego Detention as a correctional officer. With respect to those injuries, Esquivel was insured through her employer for workers' compensation by New Hampshire Insurance Company.
Esquivel filed two applications for adjudication seeking workers' compensation benefits for her industrial injuries. As a result, Esquivel came under the care and treatment of Marcia Elfenbaum, M.D., a pain management specialist whose office is located in the City of San Diego. Upon Dr. Elfenbaum's referral, Esquivel also enrolled in group therapy for pain management at Behavioral Pain Services, which is also located in the City of San Diego.
B. Esquivel's New Injuries and Amended Workers' Compensation Claim
In May 2007*fn1 Esquivel resided in the City of San Diego. The distance from her home to Dr. Elfenbaum's office on Genesee Avenue in San Diego is about eight miles, and the distance from her home to the offices of Behavioral Pain Services on Kenyon Street (also in San Diego) is about seven miles.
The weekend before Monday, May 21, Esquivel drove from her home in San Diego to her mother's house in Hesperia in San Bernardino County, California, for a visit.
On May 21, shortly before 8:00 a.m., Esquivel left her mother's home in Hesperia intending to drive back to San Diego to attend a group therapy session at Behavioral Pain Services and then go to her appointment with Dr. Elfenbaum later that day. The distance from Esquivel's mother's home in Hesperia to Dr. Elfenbaum's office in San Diego is about 136 miles.
Within minutes of leaving her mother's house, while en route to her appointments in San Diego, Esquivel drove through a stop sign in Hesperia and collided with two other cars. Esquivel suffered serious injuries. According to the traffic collision report prepared by a California Highway Patrol officer, Esquivel caused the accident by failing to stop at a stop sign in violation of Vehicle Code section 22450, subdivision (a). Esquivel ...