Trial Court: Alameda County Superior Court Trial Judge: Hon. Wynne S. Carvill (Alameda County Super. Ct. No. RF07355923)
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Reardon, J.
CERTIFIED FOR PUBLICATION
Family Code*fn1 section 1615, subdivision (c) (section 1615(c)), as amended effective January 1, 2002, creates a presumption "that a premarital agreement was not executed voluntarily" unless the court makes five designated findings. (Stats. 2001, ch. 286, § 2; In re Marriage of Friedman (2002) 100 Cal.App.4th 65, 72.) These include the finding that the party against whom enforcement is sought had at least seven calendar days between the date he or she was "first presented" with the agreement and advised to seek independent counsel, and the time he or she signed the agreement. (§ 1615(c)(2).) The trial court ruled that because seven days did not elapse between the time respondent Joseph P. Faso (Faso) was presented with the final draft addenda (the Addendum) to the premarital agreement and the time he signed it, his execution was deemed involuntary and the Addendum was unenforceable. Appellant Cari Lynn Cadwell-Faso (Cadwell-Faso) urges that where, as here, multiple drafts of a document are exchanged, the Legislature did not intend to erect an absolute seven-day waiting period between presentation of the last draft, and its execution. Alternatively, she charges that Faso should be estopped from relying on the seven-day rule.
We conclude, after receiving supplemental briefing and applying the rules of statutory interpretation, that section 1615(c)(2) simply does not pertain in the current situation where the party against whom enforcement is sought was represented by counsel from the outset of the transaction. Accordingly, we reverse the judgment.
Faso and Cadwell-Faso met in 2003 or 2004. He was 21 years her senior. Cadwell-Faso owned and operated her own business in Alameda. Faso was a wealthy, retired businessperson residing in Stockton.
The parties married on May 27, 2006, and separated less than 18 months later, on November 2, 2007.
B. The Premarital Agreement and Addenda
Prior to their marriage, the couple discussed having a premarital agreement; both parties wanted such an agreement. In December 2005, Faso's attorney, James Dyke, drafted a premarital agreement. Faso presented it to Cadwell-Faso and advised her to seek independent counsel. Cadwell-Faso hired Attorney Dan Godeke. She was not satisfied with the agreement and asked Godeke to prepare an addendum. Between March and May 2006, Godeke drafted five addenda. Faso did not agree to the terms of the first four drafts.*fn2
On May 17, 2006, Cadwell-Faso faxed Faso a "goodbye" letter along with the four unsigned draft addenda, saying she loved him but was calling off the wedding in light of their inability to reach an agreement. Thereafter the parties spoke by phone. Faso said, "Let's get married, let's get this thing done." At that time they discussed their disagreements, and, on the basis of those discussions, Cadwell-Faso directed Godeke to prepare a fifth draft addenda.
On May 18, 2006, Godeke faxed his client the fifth draft, which draft became the Addendum; on May 19 she faxed it to Faso, and he had it forwarded to his attorney on May 22. The parties met in Dyke's office on May 25, 2006. Dyke inserted the word "reasonable" in front of the phrase "actual health care needs" of Cadwell-Faso, which the Addendum obligated Faso to pay during her lifetime. With that, the parties executed the premarital agreement and the Addendum. They married two days later.
The premarital agreement recited the parties' intention to waive California community property laws. Therein Cadwell-Faso estimated that the net fair market value of her estate exceeded $1,000,000 without taking into account the liabilities detailed on an attached exhibit.*fn3 Faso estimated that the net fair market value of his estate exceeded $30,000,000. In the event the marriage terminated, the parties generally agreed to waive community property and spousal support claims against each other.
The Addendum begins with these recitals: "During her adult life until now, CARI has attended to her own financial affairs. She owns and operates her own business, she owns a residence with a mortgage of meaningful proportions, and she has made investments toward a retirement which she has anticipated would be a quarter century away. [¶] An aspect of the plan for this marriage is that CARI will dispose of her business, and, substantially, withdraw from her life of independent earning and support, at age 43 years. She will move to Stockton with JOE, they expect to travel widely, and generally they expect to lead lives associated with at least semi-retirement. [¶] CARI is not in a financial position to retire, nor will she become so, independent of JOE, in the life style anticipated for this marriage. JOE has acquired and developed a very substantial asset base during his working life."
Substantively, the Addendum provided that within 10 years following the marriage, Faso would pay off the mortgage of approximately $400,000 on Cadwell-Faso's Sea Ranch property, an obligation that was binding even if the marriage terminated. As well, the Addendum restricted Faso's ability to alienate certain real property holdings, and gave Cadwell-Faso certain rights in those holdings should he sell them during the marriage, or predecease her while still married. Further, Faso undertook to provide for Cadwell-Faso's reasonable health care needs, for life, even if the marriage terminated or he predeceased her. In the event of a dissolution, Faso agreed to pay Cadwell-Faso spousal support in the amount of $1,000 per month for each year of the marriage, up to a maximum of $5,000 per month, for a period equal to one-half the length of the marriage.
Cadwell-Faso petitioned for legal separation on November 13, 2007. The next month Faso sought dissolution of marriage. Thereafter Cadwell-Faso moved for temporary spousal support and attorney fees. Among other responses, Faso moved to set aside the Addendum, arguing that the document was invalid because he did not have seven days between the time of presentation and execution, as required by section 1615(c)(2). The matter proceeded to trial in two phases, the first phase ...