The opinion of the court was delivered by: Jean P. Rosenbluthu.s. Magistrate Judge
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
AFFIRMING THE COMMISSIONER
Plaintiff seeks review of the Commissioner's final decision denying her application for Social Security Disability Insurance Benefits and Supplemental Security Income ("SSI"). The parties consented to the jurisdiction of the undersigned U.S. Magistrate Judge pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 636(c). This matter is before the Court on the parties' Joint Stipulation, filed December 14, 2011. The Court has taken the Joint Stipulation under submission without oral argument. For the reasons stated below, the Commissioner's decision is affirmed and this action is dismissed.
Plaintiff was born on November 8, 1961. (Administrative Record ("AR") 26.) She is a native of Honduras and has limited English skills. (AR 26-27.) She obtained an eighth-grade education in Honduras. (AR 27.) Plaintiff claims to have been disabled since January 1, 1986. (AR 78, 82.) She claims that she has not worked since 1987 except "again very little in 2003." (AR 83.)
On March 2, 2007, Plaintiff filed an application for SSI. (AR 78-81.)
On April 18, 2007, Plaintiff filed an application for disability
insurance benefits. (AR 82-86.) After Plaintiff's applications were
denied, she requested a hearing before an Administrative Law Judge
("ALJ"). (AR 53.) It was held on October 6, 2008, and Plaintiff
appeared with counsel and testified on her own behalf. (AR 23-36.) On
November 4, 2008, the ALJ denied Plaintiff's claims, determining that
Plaintiff has the severe impairments of "headaches, back, left arm,
bilateral foot and knee pain, hypothyroidism, and a depressive
disorder, not otherwise specified," but that she is not disabled
because she has the residual functional capacity ("RFC")*fn1
to perform medium work. (AR 17-21.) On November 23, 2010, the
Appeals Council denied Plaintiff's request for review. (AR 1-4.) This
Plaintiff raises two disputed issues:
1. Whether the ALJ properly rejected the opinion of Dr. David Koroshec, allegedly Plaintiff's treating physician;
2. Whether the ALJ properly rejected as not credible Plaintiff's hearing testimony. (J. Stip. at 3-4.)
Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 405(g), a district court may review the Commissioner's decision to deny benefits. The Commissioner's or ALJ's findings and decision should be upheld if they are free from legal error and are supported by substantial evidence based on the record as a whole. § 405(g); Richardson v. Perales, 402 U.S. 389, 401, 91 S. Ct. 1420, 1427, 28 L. Ed. 2d 842 (1971); Parra v. Astrue, 481 F.3d 742, 746 (9th Cir. 2007). Substantial evidence means such evidence as a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion. Richardson, 402 U.S. at 401; Lingenfelter v. Astrue, 504 F.3d 1028, 1035 (9th Cir. 2007). It is more than a scintilla but less than a preponderance. Lingenfelter, 504 F.3d at 1035 (citing Robbins v. Soc. Sec. Admin., 466 F.3d 880, 882 (9th Cir. 2006)). To determine whether substantial evidence supports a finding, the reviewing court "must review the administrative record as a whole, weighing both the evidence that supports and the evidence that detracts from the Commissioner's conclusion." Reddick v. Chater, 157 F.3d 715, 720 (9th Cir. 1998). "If the evidence can reasonably support either affirming or reversing," the reviewing court "may not substitute its judgment" for that of the Commissioner. Id. at 720-21.
IV. THE EVALUATION OF DISABILITY
People are "disabled" for purposes of receiving Social Security benefits if they are unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity owing to a severe physical or mental impairment that is expected to result in death or which has lasted, or is expected to last, for a continuous period of at least 12 months. 42 U.S.C. § 423(d)(1)(A); Drouin v. Sullivan, 966 F.2d 1255, 1257 (9th Cir. 1992).
A. The Five-Step Evaluation Process The Commissioner (or ALJ) follows a five-step sequential evaluation process in assessing whether a claimant is disabled. 20 C.F.R. § 404.1520(a)(4); § 416.920(a)(4); Lester v. Chater, 81 F.3d 821, 828 n.5 (9th Cir. 1995) (as amended Apr. 9, 1996). In the first step, the Commissioner must determine whether the claimant is currently engaged in substantial gainful activity; if so, the claimant is not disabled and the claim is denied. § 404.1520(a)(4)(i); § 416.920(a)(4)(i). If the claimant is not engaged in substantial gainful activity, the second step requires the Commissioner to determine whether the claimant has a "severe" impairment or combination of impairments significantly limiting her ability to do basic work activities; if not, a finding of non-disability is made and the claim is denied. § 404.1520(a)(4)(ii); § 416.920(a)(4)(ii). If the claimant has a "severe" impairment or combination of impairments, the third step requires the Commissioner to determine whether the impairment or ...