The opinion of the court was delivered by: Kendall J. Newman United States Magistrate Judge
Plaintiff, who is represented by counsel, seeks judicial review of a final decision of the Commissioner of Social Security ("Commissioner" or "defendant") denying plaintiff's applications for Disability Insurance Benefits under Title II of the Social Security Act ("Act") and Supplemental Security Income benefits under Title XVI of the Act.*fn1 In his motion for summary judgment, plaintiff contends that the administrative law judge ("ALJ") in this case erred: (1) at step three, by "incorrectly finding that Plaintiff did not meet [Social Security Administration] Listing 1.02A" because the ALJ improperly relied on an "incorrect statement" of that listing by the medical expert; (2) by failing to give "proper weight to the medical records from Placer County Medical Clinic"; (3) by "improperly discount[ing]" plaintiff's credibility; and (4) at steps four and five in the "disability analysis" and in reliance upon the [Social Security Administration] Medical-Vocational guideline regulations ("the grids"). (See generally Pl.'s Mot. for Summ. J., Dkt. No. 16.) Defendant filed an opposition to plaintiff's motion and a cross-motion for summary judgment. (Def.'s Opp'n & Cross-Motion for Summ. J., Dkt. No. 17.) Plaintiff filed an opposition to the Commissioner's motion. (Pl.'s Opp'n, Dkt. No. 18.) For the reasons stated below, the court grants plaintiff's motion for summary judgment and denies the Commissioner's cross-motion for summary judgment.
On March 4, 2008, plaintiff filed applications for Supplemental Security Income and Disability Insurance Benefits, both of which alleged a disability onset date of April 18, 2006. (Admin. Record ("AR") 116-20.) The Social Security Administration denied plaintiff's application initially on June 22, 2008, and upon reconsideration on July 8, 2008. (AR 90-99.) Plaintiff requested a hearing before an ALJ, and the ALJ conducted a hearing regarding plaintiff's claim on May 11, 2009. (AR 50-85, 105.) Plaintiff was represented by counsel at the hearing and testified. A medical expert, Dr. Sukhdev S. Khangura, and a vocational expert, Mr. Jim Van Eck, also testified at the hearing. (AR 50-85.)
In a written decision dated June 16, 2009, the ALJ denied plaintiff's applications for benefits based on a finding that, while plaintiff was incapable of performing past relevant work as a construction laborer, plaintiff was indeed "capable of making a successful adjustment to other work that exists in significant numbers in the national economy."*fn3 (AR 22-23.) The ALJ's decision became the final decision of the Commissioner when the Appeals Council denied plaintiff's request for review. (AR 1-5.) Plaintiff subsequently filed this action.
B. Summary of the ALJ's Findings
The ALJ conducted the required five-step evaluation and concluded
was not disabled within the meaning of the Act. At step one, the ALJ
found that plaintiff had not engaged in substantial gainful employment
since April 18, 2006, the alleged date of onset of disability used by
the ALJ. (AR 16, 18.) At step two, the ALJ concluded that plaintiff
had the "severe" impairments of: "degenerative joint and Legg Perthes
disease." (AR 18.) At step three,
the ALJ determined that plaintiff did not have an impairment or
combination of impairments that met or medically equaled one of the
impairments listed in the applicable regulations, specifically,
Listing 1.02. (Id. (citing 20 C.F.R. pt. 404, subpt. P, app.1).)
Prior to reaching step four of the analysis, the ALJ determined plaintiff's residual functional capacity ("RFC") as follows:
[T]he claimant has the residual functional capacity to perform a range of light work as defined in 20 CFR 404.1567(b) and 416.967(b) except that he can lift 20 pounds occasionally and 10 pounds frequently. He can stand and/or walk for at least 2 hours, and sit without limitation, in an 8 hour day. The claimant must be allowed to change position at will. He cannot climb ladders and ropes, but he can occasionally climb stairs. The claimant can occasionally stoop, crawl, crouch, and balance. He cannot work around machinery or at heights, and can occasionally walk on uneven surfaces. (AR 19.) In assessing plaintiff's RFC, the ALJ addressed plaintiff's testimony and found that plaintiff was not credible to the extent that plaintiff's testimony conflicted with the RFC. (See AR 20-21.) The ALJ also addressed the opinion of "a physician"*fn4 dated August 2008 and February and April 2009, and gave it "minimal weight" because the opinion failed to "suggest any specific limitations, and has not provided any objective evidence" supporting the physician's opinion that plaintiff is "unable to work." (See AR 20.)
Having assessed plaintiff's RFC, the ALJ found at step four that given plaintiff's limitations, plaintiff "is unable to perform any past relevant work." (AR 21.) At step five, the ALJ found that "considering the claimant's age, education, work experience, and residual functional capacity, there are jobs that exist in significant numbers in the national economy that the claimant can perform." (AR 22.) The ALJ relied on the vocational expert's testimony, and found that plaintiff could perform jobs such as cashier, telephone-information-quotation-clerk, and business-document preparer. (AR 22.) Because the ALJ found that plaintiff could perform such work, a "finding of 'not disabled' is therefore appropriate." (AR 23.)
The court reviews the Commissioner's decision to determine whether it is (1) free of legal error, and (2) supported by substantial evidence in the record as a whole. Bruce v. Astrue, 557 F.3d 1113, 1115 (9th Cir. 2009); accord Vernoff v. Astrue, 568 F.3d 1102, 1105 (9th Cir. 2009). This standard of review has been described as "highly deferential." Valentine v. Comm'r of Soc. Sec. Admin., 574 F.3d 685, 690 (9th Cir. 2009). "'Substantial evidence means more than a mere scintilla but less than a preponderance; it is such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion." Bray v. Comm'r of Soc. Sec. Admin., 554 F.3d 1219, 1222 (9th Cir. 2009) (quoting Andrews v. Shalala, 53 F.3d 1035, 1039 (9th Cir. 1995)); accord Valentine, 574 F.3d at 690. "The ALJ is responsible for determining credibility, resolving conflicts in medical testimony, and for resolving ambiguities." Andrews, 53 F.3d at 1039; see also Tommasetti v. Astrue, 533 F.3d 1035, 1041 (9th Cir. 2008) ("[T]he ALJ is the final arbiter with respect to resolving ambiguities in the medical evidence."). Findings of fact that are supported by substantial evidence are conclusive. 42 U.S.C. § 405(g); see also McCarthy v. Apfel, 221 F.3d 1119, 1125 (9th Cir. 2000). "Where the evidence as a whole can support either a grant or a denial, [the court] may not substitute [its] judgment for the ALJ's." Bray, 554 F.3d at 1222; see also Ryan v. Comm'r of Soc. Sec., 528 F.3d 1194, 1198 (9th Cir. 2008) ("'Where evidence is susceptible to more than one rational interpretation,' the ALJ's decision should be upheld.") (quoting Burch v. Barnhart, 400 F.3d 676, 679 (9th Cir. 2005)). However, the court "must consider the entire record as a whole and may not affirm simply by isolating a 'specific quantum of supporting evidence.'" Ryan, 528 F.3d at 1198 (quoting Robbins v. Soc. Sec. Admin., 466 F.3d 880, 882 (9th Cir. 2006)); accord Lingenfelter v. Astrue, 504 F.3d 1028, 1035 (9th Cir. 2007). "To determine whether substantial evidence supports the ALJ's decision, [a court] review[s] the administrative record as a whole, weighing both the evidence that supports and that which detracts from the ALJ's conclusion." Andrews, 53 F.3d at 1039.
"If additional proceedings can remedy defects in the original administrative proceedings, a social security case should be remanded." Lewin v. Schweiker, 654 F.2d 631, 637 (9th Cir. 1981). However, the court's review is constrained to the reasons asserted by the ALJ in the ALJ's decision. Orn v. Astrue, 495 F.3d 625, 630 (9th Cir. 2007) ("We review only the reasons provided by the ALJ in the disability determination and may not affirm the ALJ on a ground upon which he did not rely."); accord Tommasetti, 533 F.3d at 1039 n.2 (declining to review reasons provided by the district court in support of the ALJ's credibility decision that were not "expressly relied on" by the ALJ during the administrative proceedings); accord Pinto v. Massanari, 249 F.3d 840, 847 (9th Cir. 2001) (noting that the Court "cannot affirm the decision of an agency on a ground that the agency did not invoke in making its decision"); Gonzalez v. Sullivan, 914 F.2d 1197, 1201 (9th Cir. 1990) ("[W]e are wary of speculating about the basis of the ALJ's conclusion -- especially when his opinion indicates that the conclusion may have been based exclusively upon an improper reason."); Barbato v. Comm'r of Soc. Sec. Admin., 923 F. Supp. 1273, 1276 n.2 (C.D. Cal. 1996) (remand is appropriate when a decision does not adequately explain how a decision was reached, "[a]nd that is so even if [the Commissioner] can offer proper post hoc explanations for such unexplained conclusions," because "the Commissioner's decision must stand or fall with the reasons set forth in the ALJ's decision, as adopted by the Appeals Council") (citation omitted).
Harmless error exists when it is clear from the record that the ALJ's error was inconsequential to the ultimate non-disability determination. Tommasetti, 533 F.3d at 1038 (citations and internal quotation marks omitted). In other words, the court will not reverse the Commissioner's decision if it is based on harmless error, which exists only when it is "clear from the record that an ALJ's error was 'inconsequential to the ultimate non-disability determination.'" Robbins v. Soc. Sec. Admin., 466 F.3d 880, 885 (9th Cir. 2006) (quoting Stout v. Comm'r, 454 F.3d 1050, 1055 (9th Cir. 2006)).
A. Meeting Or Equaling The Impairment At "Listing 1.02A" At Step Three At step three, the ALJ determines whether "a claimant's impairment meets or equals an impairment listed in Appendix 1 to Subpart P of Regulations No. 4." Tackett v. Apfel, 180 F.3d 1094, 1099 (9th Cir. 1999) . The Listing of Impairments describes specific impairments of each of the major body systems "which are considered severe enough to prevent a person from doing any gainful activity." Id. (citing 20 C.F.R. § 404.1525.) If a claimant meets or equals a listed impairment he or she will be found disabled at this step without further inquiry. Id. (citing 20 C.F.R. § 404.1520(d).)
A claimant bears the burden of proving that his impairments satisfy all the criteria of a particular listing. Sullivan v. Zebley, 493 U.S. 521, 530 (1990) ("[f]or a claimant to show that his impairment matches a listing, it must meet all of the specified medical criteria. An impairment that manifests only some of those criteria, no matter how severely, does not qualify") (emphasis in original); Tackett, 180 F.3d at ...