Ct.App. 4/1 D049331 San Diego County Super. Ct. No. GIC834348 Judge: Patricia Yim Cowett
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Werdegar, J.
For the better part of a century, California law has guaranteed to employees wage and hour protection, including meal and rest periods intended to ameliorate the consequences of long hours. For most of that time, only injunctive remedies were available for violations of meal and rest period guarantees. In 2000, however, both the Legislature and the Industrial Welfare Commission (IWC) adopted for the first time monetary remedies for the denial of meal and rest breaks. (Murphy v. Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc. (2007) 40 Cal.4th 1094, 1105-1106.) These remedies engendered a wave of wage and hour class action litigation, including the instant suit in which the trial court granted class certification and the Court of Appeal then issued writ relief and ordered three subclasses decertified.
We granted review to consider issues of significance to class actions generally and to meal and rest break class actions in particular. We conclude, contrary to the Court of Appeal, that trial courts are not obligated as a matter of law to resolve threshold disputes over the elements of a plaintiff's claims, unless a particular determination is necessarily dispositive of the certification question. Because the parties have so requested, however, we nevertheless address several such threshold disputes here. On the most contentious of these, the nature of an employer's duty to provide meal periods, we conclude an employer's obligation is to relieve its employee of all duty, with the employee thereafter at liberty to use the meal period for whatever purpose he or she desires, but the employer need not ensure that no work is done.
On the ultimate question of class certification, we review the trial court's ruling for abuse of discretion. In light of the substantial evidence submitted by plaintiffs of defendants' uniform policy, we conclude the trial court properly certified a rest break subclass. On the question of meal break subclass certification, we remand to the trial court for reconsideration. With respect to the third contested subclass, covering allegations that employees were required to work "off-the-clock," no evidence of common policies or means of proof was supplied, and the trial court therefore erred in certifying a subclass. Accordingly, because the Court of Appeal rejected certification of all three subclasses, we will affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.
Factual and Procedural Background
Defendants Brinker Restaurant Corporation, Brinker International, Inc., and Brinker International Payroll Company, L.P. (collectively Brinker), own and operate restaurants throughout California, including Chili's Grill & Bar and Maggiano's Little Italy. Brinker previously has owned and operated additional chains in California, including Romano's Macaroni Grill, Corner Bakery Cafe, Cozymel's Mexican Grill, and On the Border Mexican Grill & Cantina. Name plaintiffs Adam Hohnbaum, Illya Haase, Romeo Osorio, Amanda June Rader, and Santana Alvarado (collectively Hohnbaum) are or were hourly nonexempt employees at one or more of Brinker's restaurants.
State law obligates employers to afford their nonexempt employees meal periods and rest periods during the workday. (See Lab. Code, §§ 226.7, 512; IWC wage order No. 5-2001 (Cal. Code Regs., tit. 8, § 11050); hereafter Wage Order No. 5.)*fn1 Labor Code section 226.7, subdivision (a)*fn2 prohibits an employer from requiring an employee "to work during any meal or rest period mandated by an applicable order of the Industrial Welfare Commission." In turn, Wage Order No. 5, subdivision 12 prescribes rest periods, while subdivision 11, as well as section 512 of the Labor Code, prescribes meal periods. Employers who violate these requirements must pay premium wages. (§ 226.7, subd. (b); Wage Order No. 5, subds. 11(B), 12(B); see Murphy v. Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc., supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1114.)
In 2002, the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE) launched an investigation into whether Brinker was complying with its obligations to provide rest and meal breaks, maintain proper records, and pay premium wages in the event required breaks were not provided. The DLSE filed suit and eventually settled in exchange for Brinker's payment of $10 million to redress injuries suffered by employees between 1999 and 2001 and the stipulation to a court-ordered injunction to ensure compliance with meal and rest break laws. In connection with the settlement, Brinker disclaimed all liability.
In the aftermath of the DLSE's suit, Hohnbaum filed this putative class action, seeking to represent the cooks, stewards, buspersons, wait staff, host staff, and other hourly employees who staff Brinker's restaurants. The operative complaint, the first amended complaint, alleges in its first cause of action that Brinker failed to provide employees the rest breaks, or premium wages in lieu of rest breaks, due them under law. (See § 226.7; Wage Order No. 5, subd. 12.) The second cause of action alleges Brinker failed to provide employees the meal breaks, or premium wages in lieu of meal breaks, required by law. (See §§ 226.7, 512; Wage Order No. 5, subd. 11.) In the course of litigation, two distinct theories underlying the meal break claim have emerged: (1) Brinker provided employees fewer meal periods than required by section 512 and Wage Order No. 5; and (2) Brinker sometimes required "early lunching," a single meal period soon after the beginning of a work shift followed by six, seven, eight, or more hours without an additional meal period. Finally, Hohnbaum contends Brinker required employees to work off-the-clock during meal periods and engaged in time shaving, unlawfully altering employee time records to misreport the amount of time worked and break time taken.*fn3
In aid of a court-ordered mediation, the parties stipulated to the trial court's resolving the legal issue central to the early lunching theory: whether state law imposes timing requirements on when a meal period must be provided and, if so, what it requires. Hohnbaum contended governing law obligates an employer to provide a 30-minute meal period at least once every five hours. Brinker countered that no such timing obligation is imposed, and an employer satisfies its meal period obligations by providing one meal period for shifts over five hours and two meal periods for shifts over 10 hours.
The trial court generally agreed with Hohnbaum, holding that an employer's obligations are not satisfied simply by affording a meal period for each work shift longer than five hours, and that affording a meal period during the first hour of a 10-hour shift, with nothing during the remaining nine hours, would violate the obligation to provide a meal period for each five-hour work period. This advisory opinion subsequently was confirmed as a court order. Brinker filed a writ petition in the Court of Appeal, which was denied.
Hohnbaum then moved for class certification, defining the class as "[a]ll present and former employees of [Brinker] who worked at a Brinker owned restaurant in California, holding a non-exempt position, from and after August 16, 2000."*fn4 The class definition included several subclasses, three of which are pertinent here: (1) a " 'Rest Period Subclass' " comprising all "Class Members who worked one or more work periods in excess of three and a half (3.5) hours without receiving a paid 10 minute break during which the Class Member was relieved of all duties, from and after October 1, 2000"; (2) a " 'Meal Period Subclass' " covering all "Class Members who worked one or more work periods in excess of five (5) consecutive hours, without receiving a thirty (30) minute meal period during which the Class Member was relieved of all duties, from and after October 1, 2000"; and (3) an " 'Off-The-Clock' Subclass" for all "Class Members who worked 'off-the-clock' or without pay from and after August 16, 2000."
Hohnbaum argued class certification was warranted because, inter alia, common legal and factual issues predominated. He contended Brinker applied common meal and rest break policies to all nonexempt employees, the legality of these common policies was most appropriately decided on a classwide basis, and computer shift records maintained by Brinker could be used to identify violations and establish classwide liability. Hohnbaum supported the motion with numerous declarations from proposed class members asserting that Brinker had failed to provide individuals with meal and rest breaks or provided breaks at allegedly improper times during the course of an employee's work shift. He also submitted survey evidence of ongoing meal and rest break violations even after settlement with the DLSE.
Brinker opposed class certification, arguing that individual issues predominated. Specifically, Brinker argued that a rest break subclass should not be certified because an employer's obligation is simply to permit such breaks to be taken, as Brinker did, and whether employees in fact chose to take such breaks is an individualized inquiry not amenable to class treatment. Brinker contended a meal period subclass should not be certified because an employer is obliged only to make meal breaks available and need not ensure that employees take such breaks. Brinker asserted it had complied with its legal obligation to make meal breaks available, many employees took those breaks, and inquiry into why particular employees did not take meal breaks raised individual questions precluding class treatment. Brinker also contended plaintiffs' early lunching claims were legally unfounded and, in any event, individual issues again predominated, rendering the meal period claims unsuitable for litigation on a class basis. Finally, Brinker argued the off-the-clock subclass should not be certified because no Brinker policy permitted such alteration of time records, Brinker did not suffer or permit off-the-clock work, and any such off-the-clock work would require individualized employee-by-employee proof. Brinker submitted hundreds of declarations in support of its opposition to class certification.
Following a full hearing, the trial court granted class certification, finding that common issues predominated over individual issues: "[C]ommon questions regarding the meal and rest period breaks are sufficiently pervasive to permit adjudication in this one class action. [¶] [Brinker's] arguments regarding the necessity of making employees take meal and rest periods actually point toward a common legal issue of what [Brinker] must do to comply with the Labor Code. Although a determination that [Brinker] need not force employees to take breaks may require some individualized discovery, the common alleged issues of meal and rest violations predominate." A class proceeding was also superior: "Adjudicating plaintiffs' allegations in one litigation" would be "much more efficient" than resolving it in 60,000 separate administrative or judicial proceedings, as Brinker had suggested.
The Court of Appeal granted writ relief and reversed class certification as to the three disputed subclasses. We granted review to resolve uncertainties in the handling of wage and hour class certification motions.
I. Class Certification Principles
Originally creatures of equity, class actions have been statutorily embraced by the Legislature whenever "the question [in a case] is one of a common or general interest, of many persons, or when the parties are numerous, and it is impracticable to bring them all before the court . . . ." (Code Civ. Proc., § 382; see Fireside Bank v. Superior Court (2007) 40 Cal.4th 1069, 1078; City of San Jose v. Superior Court (1974) 12 Cal.3d 447, 458.) Drawing on the language of Code of Civil Procedure section 382 and federal precedent, we have articulated clear requirements for the certification of a class. The party advocating class treatment must demonstrate the existence of an ascertainable and sufficiently numerous class, a well-defined community of interest, and substantial benefits from certification that render proceeding as a class superior to the alternatives. (Code Civ. Proc., § 382; Fireside Bank, at p. 1089; Linder v. Thrifty Oil Co. (2000) 23 Cal.4th 429, 435; City of San Jose, at p. 459.) "In turn, the 'community of interest requirement embodies three factors: (1) predominant common questions of law or fact; (2) class representatives with claims or defenses typical of the class; and (3) class representatives who can adequately represent the class.' " (Fireside Bank, at p. 1089, quoting Richmond v. Dart Industries, Inc. (1981) 29 Cal.3d 462, 470.)
Here, only a single element of class suitability, and a single aspect of the trial court's certification decision, is in dispute: whether individual questions or questions of common or general interest predominate. The "ultimate question" the element of predominance presents is whether "the issues which may be jointly tried, when compared with those requiring separate adjudication, are so numerous or substantial that the maintenance of a class action would be advantageous to the judicial process and to the litigants." (Collins v. Rocha (1972) 7 Cal.3d 232, 238; accord, Sav-On Drug Stores, Inc. v. Superior Court (2004) 34 Cal.4th 319, 326.) The answer hinges on "whether the theory of recovery advanced by the proponents of certiﬁcation is, as an analytical matter, likely to prove amenable to class treatment." (Sav-On, at p. 327.) A court must examine the allegations of the complaint and supporting declarations (ibid.) and consider whether the legal and factual issues they present are such that their resolution in a single class proceeding would be both desirable and feasible.*fn5 "As a general rule if the defendant's liability can be determined by facts common to all members of the class, a class will be certified even if the members must individually prove their damages." (Hicks v. Kaufman & Broad Home Corp. (2001) 89 Cal.App.4th 908, 916; accord, Knapp v. AT&T Wireless Services, Inc. (2011) 195 Cal.App.4th 932, 941.)
On review of a class certification order, an appellate court's inquiry is narrowly circumscribed. "The decision to certify a class rests squarely within the discretion of the trial court, and we afford that decision great deference on appeal, reversing only for a manifest abuse of discretion: 'Because trial courts are ideally situated to evaluate the efficiencies and practicalities of permitting group action, they are afforded great discretion in granting or denying certification.' [Citation.] A certification order generally will not be disturbed unless (1) it is unsupported by substantial evidence, (2) it rests on improper criteria, or (3) it rests on erroneous legal assumptions. [Citations.]" (Fireside Bank v. Superior Court, supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1089; see also Hamwi v. Citinational-Buckeye Inv. Co. (1977) 72 Cal.App.3d 462, 472 ["So long as [the trial] court applies proper criteria and its action is founded on a rational basis, its ruling must be upheld."].) Predominance is a factual question; accordingly, the trial court's finding that common issues predominate generally is reviewed for substantial evidence. (Sav-On Drug Stores, Inc. v. Superior Court, supra, 34 Cal.4th at pp. 328-329.) We must "[p]resum[e] in favor of the certification order . . . the existence of every fact the trial court could reasonably deduce from the record . . . ." (Id. at p. 329.)
The appellate judgment reversing certification rests on two separate grounds. First, the Court of Appeal held the trial court committed error per se by ruling on certification without first resolving legal disputes over the scope of Brinker's duties to provide meal and rest periods. Second, it held that any court, upon resolving those disputes, could only have concluded certification was inappropriate. We consider the first of these grounds in part II., post, and the second of them in parts IV. through VI., post. As we shall explain, the first ground does not support the judgment, while the second supports it only partially.
II. Class Certification and Disputes over a Claim's Elements
The trial court concluded it could certify a class without resolving disputes over the scope of Brinker's duty to provide breaks because common questions would predominate even if Brinker's legal positions were correct. According to the Court of Appeal, this was error: the trial court "was required to determine the elements of plaintiffs' claims" because the court "could not determine whether individual or common issues predominate in this case, and thus whether a class action was proper, without first determining this threshold issue." While we agree trial courts must resolve any legal or factual issues that are necessary to a determination whether class certification is proper, the Court of Appeal went too far by intimating that a trial court must as a threshold matter always resolve any party disputes over the elements of a claim. In many instances, whether class certification is appropriate or inappropriate may be determined irrespective of which party is correct. In such circumstances, it is not an abuse of discretion to postpone resolution of the disputed issue.
"The certiﬁcation question is 'essentially a procedural one that does not ask whether an action is legally or factually meritorious.' " (Sav-On Drug Stores, Inc. v. Superior Court, supra, 34 Cal.4th at p. 326, quoting Linder v. Thrifty Oil Co., supra, 23 Cal.4th at pp. 439-440; see also Eisen v. Carlisle & Jacquelin (1974) 417 U.S. 156, 178 [" 'In determining the propriety of a class action, the question is not whether the plaintiff or plaintiffs have stated a cause of action or will prevail on the merits, but rather whether the requirements of [class certification] are met.' "].) A class certification motion is not a license for a free-floating inquiry into the validity of the complaint's allegations; rather, resolution of disputes over the merits of a case generally must be postponed until after class certification has been decided (Fireside Bank v. Superior Court, supra, 40 Cal.4th at pp. 1083-1086), with the court assuming for purposes of the certification motion that any claims have merit (Linder, at p. 443).
We have recognized, however, that "issues affecting the merits of a case may be enmeshed with class action requirements . . . ." (Linder v. Thrifty Oil Co., supra, 23 Cal.4th at p. 443; see also Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Dukes (2011) 564 U.S. ___, ___ [131 S.Ct. 2541, 2551] [analysis of a class certification's propriety "[f]requently . . . will entail some overlap with the merits of the plaintiff's underlying claim. That cannot be helped."]; Coopers & Lybrand v. Livesay (1978) 437 U.S. 463, 469, fn. 12 [" 'Evaluation of many of the questions entering into determination of class action questions is intimately involved with the merits of the claims.' "].) When evidence or legal issues germane to the certification question bear as well on aspects of the merits, a court may properly evaluate them. (Wal-Mart Stores, 131 S.Ct. at pp. 2551-2552 & fn. 6; Ghazaryan v. Diva Limousine, Ltd. (2008) 169 Cal.App.4th 1524, 1531; Caro v. Proctor & Gamble Co. (1993) 18 Cal.App.4th 644, 656.) The rule is that a court may "consider how various claims and defenses relate and may affect the course of the litigation" even though such "considerations . . . may overlap the case's merits." (Fireside Bank v. Superior Court, supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1092; see Szabo v. Bridgeport Machines, Inc. (7th Cir. 2001) 249 F.3d 672, 676 [if the considerations necessary to certification "overlap the merits . . . then the judge must make a preliminary inquiry into the merits"].)
In particular, whether common or individual questions predominate will often depend upon resolution of issues closely tied to the merits. (Coopers & Lybrand v. Livesay, supra, 437 U.S. at p. 469, fn. 12; Linder v. Thrifty Oil Co., supra, 23 Cal.4th at p. 443.) To assess predominance, a court "must examine the issues framed by the pleadings and the law applicable to the causes of action alleged." (Hicks v. Kaufman & Broad Home Corp., supra, 89 Cal.App.4th at p. 916.) It must determine whether the elements necessary to establish liability are susceptible of common proof or, if not, whether there are ways to manage effectively proof of any elements that may require individualized evidence. (See Sav-On Drug Stores, Inc. v. Superior Court, supra, 34 Cal.4th at p. 334.) In turn, whether an element may be established collectively or only individually, plaintiff by plaintiff, can turn on the precise nature of the element and require resolution of disputed legal or factual issues affecting the merits. For example, whether reliance or a breach of duty can be demonstrated collectively or poses insuperable problems of individualized proof may be determinable only after closer inspection of the nature of the reliance required or duty owed and, in some instances, resolution of legal or factual disputes going directly to the merits. (See, e.g., Erica P. John Fund, Inc. v. Halliburton Co. (2011) 563 U.S. ___, ___ [131 S.Ct. 2179, 2184-2186]; Bartold v. Glendale Federal Bank (2000) 81 Cal.App.4th 816, 829-831.)
Such inquiries are closely circumscribed. As the Seventh Circuit has correctly explained, any "peek" a court takes into the merits at the certification stage must "be limited to those aspects of the merits that affect the decisions essential" to class certification. (Schleicher v. Wendt (7th Cir. 2010) 618 F.3d 679, 685.) While the Schleicher defendants urged that the trial court had erred by failing to resolve disputes over the falsity and materiality of their statements, the Seventh Circuit affirmed class certification without inquiry into such matters, concluding no element of the certification determination hinged on their resolution. (Ibid.) Likewise, in Jaimez v. Daiohs USA, Inc. (2010) 181 Cal.App.4th 1286, 1303-1305, the Court of Appeal reversed the trial court's refusal to certify a wage and hour class without deciding contested legal issues concerning the defendant's meal break policy because common questions predominated in any event. (See also Medrazo v. Honda of North Hollywood (2008) 166 Cal.App.4th 89, 97-98 [trial court erred in resolving the merits of an affirmative defense divorced from consideration of the specific criteria for class certification].)
We summarize the governing principles. Presented with a class certification motion, a trial court must examine the plaintiff's theory of recovery, assess the nature of the legal and factual disputes likely to be presented, and decide whether individual or common issues predominate. To the extent the propriety of certification depends upon disputed threshold legal or factual questions, a court may, and indeed must, resolve them. Out of respect for the problems arising from one-way intervention, however, a court generally should eschew resolution of such issues unless necessary. (See Fireside Bank v. Superior Court, supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1074; Schleicher v. Wendt, supra, 618 F.3d at p. 685.) Consequently, a trial court does not abuse its discretion if it certifies (or denies certification of) a class without deciding one or more issues affecting the nature of a given element if resolution of such issues would not affect the ultimate certification decision.*fn6
In support of its conclusion that a trial court must always first decide upon the applicable law and resolve legal issues surrounding each element of a proposed class claim, the Court of Appeal relied principally on our decision in Washington Mutual Bank v. Superior Court (2001) 24 Cal.4th 906. We disagree with the Court of Appeal's reading of our decision. In Washington Mutual, the plaintiffs sought certification of a nationwide class. Although members of the plaintiff class were subject to choice-of-law agreements, the trial court granted certification without first determining whether the agreements were enforceable and would result in the application of different state laws, and whether any applicable state laws varied in ways that would render the class proceeding unmanageable. We reversed, explaining that it was not possible to intelligently assess predominance and the manageability of claims asserted on behalf of nonresidents without those determinations. (Washington Mutual, at pp. 915, 922, 927-928.) Washington Mutual involves an unexceptional application of the principles we have articulated: if the presence of an element necessary to certification, such as predominance, cannot be determined without resolving a particular legal issue, the trial court must resolve that issue at the certification stage. That the failure to resolve disputed legal issues affecting the elements of a claim is always reversible error does not follow.
III. Wage Orders and the Labor Code
We turn to the Court of Appeal's alternate basis for reversing class certification--that if one considers the substance of the parties' various legal disputes and the elements of Hohnbaum's claims, one must conclude as a matter of law that common questions do not predominate. In assessing that conclusion, at the parties' request we examine the merits of their substantive legal disputes. (See Linder v. Thrifty Oil Co., supra, 23 Cal.4th at p. 443 ["[W]e see nothing to prevent a court from considering the legal sufficiency of claims when ruling on certification where both sides jointly request such action."].) Because those disputes derive in part from conflicting visions of the respective roles statutes and wage orders play in establishing the state's wage and hour law, we begin by examining those roles.
Nearly a century ago, the Legislature responded to the problem of inadequate wages and poor working conditions by establishing the IWC and delegating to it the authority to investigate various industries and promulgate wage orders fixing for each industry minimum wages, maximum hours of work, and conditions of labor. (Martinez v. Combs, supra, 49 Cal.4th at pp. 52-55; see Cal. Const., art. XIV, § 1 [confirming the Legislature's authority to establish a commission and grant it legislative and other powers over such matters].) Pursuant to its "broad statutory authority" (Industrial Welfare Com. v. Superior Court (1980) 27 Cal.3d 690, 701), the IWC in 1916 began issuing industry- and occupationwide wage orders specifying minimum requirements with respect to wages, hours, and working conditions (id. at p. 700). In addition, the Legislature has from time to time enacted statutes to regulate wages, hours, and working conditions directly. Consequently, wage and hour claims are today governed by two complementary and occasionally overlapping sources of authority: the provisions of the Labor Code, enacted by the Legislature, and a series of 18 wage orders, adopted by the IWC. (Reynolds v. Bement (2005) 36 Cal.4th 1075, 1084; see IWC wage order Nos. 1-2001 to 17-2001 and MW-2007 (Cal. Code Regs., tit. 8, §§ 11000-11170).)
We apply the usual rules of statutory interpretation to the Labor Code, beginning with and focusing on the text as the best indicator of legislative purpose. (Murphy v. Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc., supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1103.) "[I]n light of the remedial nature of the legislative enactments authorizing the regulation of wages, hours and working conditions for the protection and benefit of employees, the statutory provisions are to be liberally construed with an eye to promoting such protection." (Industrial Welfare Com. v. Superior Court, supra, 27 Cal.3d at p. 702; see also Murphy, at p. 1103 [given the Legislature's remedial purpose, "statutes governing conditions of employment are to be construed broadly in favor of protecting employees."].)
In turn, the IWC's wage orders are entitled to "extraordinary deference, both in upholding their validity and in enforcing their specific terms." (Martinez v. Combs, supra, 49 Cal.4th at p. 61.) When a wage order's validity and application are conceded and the question is only one of interpretation, the usual rules of statutory interpretation apply. (Collins v. Overnite Transportation Co. (2003) 105 Cal.App.4th 171, 178-179; see Cal. Drive-in Restaurant Assn. v. Clark (1943) 22 Cal.2d 287, 292.) As with the Labor Code provisions at issue, the meal and rest period requirements we must construe "have long been viewed as part of the remedial worker protection framework." (Murphy v. Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc., supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 1105.) Accordingly, the relevant wage order provisions must be interpreted in the manner that best effectuates that protective intent. (Martinez, at pp. 61-62; see Industrial Welfare Com. v. Superior Court, supra, 27 Cal.3d at p. 724; Bono Enterprises, Inc. v. Bradshaw (1995) 32 Cal.App.4th 968, 974.)
The IWC's wage orders are to be accorded the same dignity as statutes. They are "presumptively valid" legislative regulations of the employment relationship (Martinez v. Combs, supra, 49 Cal.4th at p. 65), regulations that must be given "independent effect" separate and apart from any statutory enactments (id. at p. 68). To the extent a wage order and a statute overlap, we will seek to harmonize them, as we would with any two statutes. (Cal. Drive-in Restaurant Assn. v. Clark, supra, 22 Cal.2d at pp. 292-293.)
Here, Wage Order No. 5, governing the public housekeeping industry, applies.*fn7 We consider in turn both the scope of the duties it and several related statutes (see §§ 226.7, 512, 516) impose on restaurant employers to afford rest and meal periods, and whether in light of those duties the Court of Appeal erred in reversing as an abuse of discretion the trial court's certification of three subclasses.*fn8
IV. Rest Period Class Certification
A. The Scope of an Employer's Duty to Provide Rest Periods
Preliminary to its assessment of the trial court's certification of a rest period subclass, the Court of Appeal addressed two threshold legal questions: the amount of rest time that must be authorized, and the timing of any rest periods. We consider these same two questions.
1. The rate at which rest time must be authorized and permitted
Brinker's rest period duties are defined solely by Wage Order No. 5, subdivision 12. To determine the rate at which rest time must be authorized, we begin, as always, with the text. (See Reynolds v. Bement, supra, 36 Cal.4th at p. 1086 ["The best indicator of [the IWC's] intent is the language of the [wage order] provision itself."].) Subdivision 12(A) provides in relevant part: "Every employer shall authorize and permit all employees to take rest periods, which insofar as practicable shall be in the middle of each work period. The authorized rest period time shall be based on the total hours worked daily at the rate of ten (10) minutes net rest time per four (4) ...