The opinion of the court was delivered by: Morrison C. England, JR United States District Judge
On July 12, 2012, this matter came before the Court for a hearing regarding the restitution recommended by the United States Probation Office. Defendant was represented by Matthew W. Flemming, Esq., and the United States was represented by Assistant United States Attorney Todd Pickles. Having heard the arguments of the parties and considered the papers filed, including the Probation Office's Restitution Report dated December 8, 2011, the Court hereby orders restitution in the amount of $1,965,030.
On May 12, 2011, Defendant pled guilty to Count Three of the Indictment charging him with wire fraud in violation of Title 18, United States Code § 1343, relating to a real estate investment Ponzi scheme. Pursuant to his plea agreement, Defendant agreed to pay restitution in the amount to be determined by the Court with respect to his Ponzi scheme as well as a separate bankruptcy scheme.
On October 3, 2011, the Court sentenced Defendant to seventy months imprisonment and thirty-six months supervised release, and ordered Defendant to pay restitution in an amount to be determined by the Court at a later date after considering any recommendation by the assigned Probation Officer. In a Restitution Determination memorandum ("Restitution Report") dated December 8, 2011, the assigned Probation Officer recommended total restitution in the amount of $2,552,140. The Restitution Report identifies the victims of the Ponzi scheme and the bankruptcy scheme, and the amounts of loss for each. Defendant does not object to the restitution to be awarded to 29 of his victims as set forth in the Restitution Report. As for an additional 10 victims, he objects to part or all of the restitution recommended in the Restitution Report.
The Mandatory Victims Restitution Act ("MVRA") requires mandatory restitution to any person "directly and proximately harmed as a result of the commission" a crime against property, including wire fraud of which Defendant pled guilty.
See 18 U.S.C. §§ 3663A(a)(2); 3663A(c)(1)(A)(ii). Because of "the remedial purposes underlying the MVRA," "district courts [have] a degree of flexibility in accounting for a victim's complete losses." United States v. Waknine, 543 F.3d 546, 557 (9th Cir. 2008) (citations omitted). When objections are made, the MVRA "minimally requires that facts be established by a preponderance of the evidence, and the district court [may] utilize only evidence that possesses sufficient indicia of reliability to support its probable accuracy." Id. (citations and internal quotations omitted).
The United States provided to the Probation Office the discovery in this case, including bank records demonstrating money paid by numerous victims into the Contour Services bank account maintained by Defendant and his co-schemer Winnett as part of their Ponzi scheme. Additionally, the United States Trustee's Office provided information to the Probation Office with respect to Defendant's bankruptcy fraud scheme, by which he charged individuals facing foreclosure varying amounts of money to 'save' their homes by filing fraudulent bankruptcy petitions. Finally, numerous victims have supplied affidavits identifying the specific amount of their losses and have summarized the losses with an explanation as to its cause. Each of the victim impact statements is signed under penalty of perjury.
In response, Defendant states in his papers that he does not "recall" owing various amounts to certain individuals who have submitted witness affidavits. However, he has submitted no admissible evidence supporting these denials.
Additionally, although Defendant points to a spreadsheet prepared by the Secret Service detailing money paid into the Contour Services bank account, he has presented no evidence that all money paid to Defendant as part of the Ponzi scheme was paid into that bank account. Therefore, the bank account does not establish the total amount of victim losses sustained and, thus, does not rebut the victim affidavits identifying the losses they sustained.
It is well established that a restitution award may be based on victim impact statements or victim affidavits. See, e.g., United States v. Doe, 488 F.3d 1154, 1157-62 (9th Cir. 2007) (affirming in part restitution award based on amounts in victim impact statements in PSR); United States v. Lindholm, 24 F.3d 1078, 1086 (9th Cir. 1994) (affirming restitution award based on amounts provided in victim impact statements); see also Waknine, 543 F.3d at 557 ("victim affidavits will generally provide sufficient, reliable evidence to support a restitution order"). Defendant has failed to present any admissible evidence refuting the victim impact statements. Accordingly, the Court finds that the victim impact statements establish, by a preponderance of the evidence, along with the Probation Officer's Restitution Report, the amount of losses sustained by Defendant's victims. Therefore, the Court awards restitution as follows: Carl. D., $40,000; Michael H., $50,000; Jerry F., $92,000; Ali F., $72,633; Thomas W., $874,125; Kevin W., $559,632; and Darlene W., $4,800.
Turning to victim Dennis R., despite his submission of a victim impact statement identifying $370,000 in losses, he failed to provide any summary of his losses. Nor did Dennis R. explain how his ...