The opinion of the court was delivered by: Hon. Anthony J. Battaglia U.S. District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART MOTIONS TO EXCLUDE EXPERT TESTIMONY OF M. TODD HENDERSON
This Document Relates to ALL ACTIONS.
Defendants filed a motion to exclude the testimony of Plaintiffs' expert M. Todd Henderson (hereinafter "Prof. Henderson"), (Doc. No. 293-1). Based upon the parties' moving papers and arguments, the Court hereby GRANTS IN PART and DENIES IN PART the Defendants motion, (Doc. No. 293-1), as set forth below.
Plaintiffs allege that between February 27, 2007 and November 10, 2008 (the "Class Period"), Defendants engaged in a fraudulent scheme to inflate Novatel's stock value so that Defendants could sell their stock in the company for a profit. (CC, Doc. No. 23, at ¶¶ 1, 12.) Plaintiffs contend that Novatel's success was largely dependent on its ability to supply wireless modems to its two largest customers, Sprint and Verizon, which in 2006 accounted for 38.2% and 19.7% of Novatel's revenue respectively.
at ¶14.) According to Plaintiffs, "defendants knew that the market was particularly sensitive to information about these customers" and "[s]trong financial results would surely spur an increase in Novatel's stock price whereas any negative information regarding these customers would reduce it." (Id. at ¶14.)
Plaintiffs allege that throughout the Class Period, Defendants Weinert and Leparulo misrepresented the financial condition of the Company because they told investors that the Company was seeing
demand for its products, and did not disclose to investors that Novatel did not have an adequate "product mix" to meet the needs of its customers. (CC, Doc. No. 23, at ¶¶ 57(a)(iii)), 62(a)(ii), 66(a)(ii), 73(a)(ii)).) Plaintiffs also allege that Novatel covered up the slowdown in its business by shipping product "early," which purportedly violated accounting rules governing revenue recognition. (Id., ¶¶ 6.)
Plaintiffs allege that during this time period, Defendants were selling significant amounts of their Novatel holdings. (Id.) Plaintiffs allege that during the Class Period, Defendants sold 1,258,466 shares of Novatel stock for almost $29 million in proceeds. (Id. ¶15.) Plaintiffs allege that 62% of the Defendants' Class Period sales occurred in June and July 2007, just before the market learned about these concealed facts. (Id. ¶16.) Plaintiffs claim that four specific stock price declines on July 20, 2007; February 21, 2008; April 15, 2008; and August 20, 2008, resulted from the market learning of these allegedly concealed facts. (Id., ¶¶ 125-28.)
Federal Rule of Evidence 702 provides that expert testimony is admissible if "scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue." Fed. R. Evid. 702. Expert testimony under Rule 702 must be both relevant and reliable. Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharms., Inc., 509 U.S. 579, 589 (1993). When considering evidence proffered under Rule 702, the trial court must act as a "gatekeeper" by making a preliminary determination that the expert's proposed testimony is reliable. Elsayed Mukhtar v. Cal. State Univ., Hayward, 299 F.3d 1053, 1063 (9th Cir. 2002), amended by 319 F.3d 1073 (9th Cir. 2003).
As a guide for assessing the scientific validity of expert testimony, the Supreme Court provided a non-exhaustive list of factors that courts may consider: (1) whether the theory or technique is generally accepted within a relevant scientific community; (2) whether the theory or technique has been subjected to peer review and publication; (3) the known or potential rate of error; and (4) whether the theory or technique can be tested. Daubert, 509 U.S. at 593--94; see also Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael, 526 U.S. 137 (1999). The Ninth Circuit also has indicated that independent research, rather than research conducted for the purposes of litigation, carries with it the indicia of reliability. See Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 43 F.3d 1311, 1317 (9th Cir. 1995) ( "Daubert II"). In particular, using independent, pre-existing research "provides objective proof that the research comports with the dictates of good science" and is less likely "to have been biased by the promise of remuneration." Id. If the testimony is not based on "pre-litigation" research or if the expert's research has not been subjected to
review, then the expert must explain precisely how he went about reaching his conclusions and point to some objective source, a learned treatise, the policy statement of a professional association, a published article in a reputable scientific journal or the like, to show that he has followed the scientific method, as it is practiced by (at least) a recognized minority of scientists in his field. Id. at 1318--19
United States v. Rincon, 28 F.3d 921, 924 (9th Cir. 1994)); see also Lust v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 89 F.3d 594, 597 (9th Cir. 1996). The proponent of the evidence must prove its admissibility by a ...