ORDER AND FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
On December 6, 2012, defendant, proceeding pro se, filed a notice of removal of this action from the Superior Court of the State of California for San Joaquin County.*fn1 Dckt. No. 2.
This court has an independent duty to ascertain its jurisdiction and may remand sua sponte for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. See 28 U.S.C. § 1447(c). "The burden of establishing federal jurisdiction is on the party seeking removal, and the removal statute is strictly construed against removal jurisdiction." Emrich v. Touche Ross & Co., 846 F.2d 1190, 1195 (9th Cir. 1988). "Federal jurisdiction must be rejected if there is any doubt as to the right of removal in the first instance." Gaus v. Miles, Inc., 980 F.2d 564, 566 (9th Cir. 1992). As explained below, defendant has failed to meet that burden.
The notice of removal states that this court has federal question jurisdiction. Dckt. No. 2 at 2-3. However, a review of the complaint reveals that plaintiff does not allege any federal claims; instead, plaintiff alleges only unlawful detainer under state law. Compl., Dckt. No. 2 at 5-7. The presence or absence of federal question jurisdiction "is governed by the 'well-pleaded complaint rule,' which provides that federal jurisdiction exists only when a federal question is presented on the face of plaintiff's properly pleaded complaint." Caterpillar, Inc. v. Williams, 482 U.S. 386, 392 (1987). This is the case where the complaint "establishes either that  federal law creates the cause of action or that  the plaintiff's right to relief necessarily depends on resolution of a substantial question of federal law." Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Co. v. An Exclusive Gas Storage Leasehold & Easement, 524 F.3d 1090, 1100 (9th Cir. 2008) (quoting Franchise Tax Bd. v. Constr. Laborers Vacation Trust, 463 U.S. 1, 27-28 (1983)). Here, plaintiff's one cause of action is for unlawful detainer under state law, and under the well-pleaded complaint rule, a defendant's claims or defenses may not serve as a basis for removal.*fn2 See Takeda v. Nw. Nat'l Life Ins. Co., 765 F.2d 815, 822 (9th Cir. 1985).
Defendant's notice of removal asserts numerous defenses and purports to state a variety of counterclaims against plaintiff. See generally Dckt. No. 1. However, neither defenses nor potential counterclaims "are considered in evaluating whether a federal question appears on the face of a plaintiff's complaint." First N. Bank of Dixon v. Hatanaka, 2011 WL 6328713, at *4 (E.D. Cal. Dec. 16, 2011); Wescom Credit Union v. Dudley, 2010 WL 4916578, at *2 (C.D. Cal. Nov. 22, 2010) ("provisions [of the Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act] offer [defendant] a federal defense to an unlawful detainer action where the plaintiff fails to comply with these requirements. A federal defense, however, does not support federal-question jurisdiction.").
Therefore, because defendant has not adequately established a basis for this court's subject matter jurisdiction, the case must be remanded.*fn3 See 28 U.S.C. § 1447(c).
Accordingly, IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the status (pretrial scheduling) conference currently set for April 10, 2013 is vacated. IT IS FURTHER RECOMMENDED that the above-captioned case be REMANDED to the Superior Court of the State of California in and for the County of San Joaquin.
These findings and recommendations are submitted to the United States District Judge assigned to the case, pursuant to the provisions of 28 U.S.C. § 636(b)(l). Within fourteen days after being served with these findings and recommendations, any party may file written objections with the court and serve a copy on all parties. Such a document should be captioned "Objections to Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendations." Any reply to the objections shall be served and filed within fourteen days after service of the objections. Failure to file objections within the specified time may waive ...