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In Re Linkedin User Privacy Litigation


March 5, 2013


The opinion of the court was delivered by: Edward J. Davila United States District Judge


United States District Court For the Northern District of California

Plaintiffs Katie Szpyrka ("Szpyrka") and Khalilah Wright ("Wright"), collectively "Plaintiffs," bring this putative class action against Defendant LinkedIn Corporation ("Defendant" 19 or "LinkedIn"). Presently before the Court is LinkedIn's Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs' First 20 Amended Consolidated Complaint (the "FAC"). Having reviewed the parties' papers and after 21 having heard oral arguments of counsel, the Court has determined that LinkedIn's Motion will be 22 GRANTED. 23 24


LinkedIn owns and operates the website, which provides an online 26 community for professional networking. First Am. Consolidated Class Action Compl. ("FAC") ¶ 12, Docket Item No. 54. Prospective members may sign up for a membership by providing a 2 valid email address and registration password, which LinkedIn stores on its database. Id. ¶ 13. 3

Once registered, a member may create a free online professional profile containing such 4 information as employment and educational history. Id. 5

When members register, they are required to confirm that they agree to LinkedIn's User Agreement ("User Agreement") and Privacy Policy ("Privacy Policy").*fn1 Id. ¶¶ 15--16; Declaration 7 of Eric Heath in Supp. of Def.'s Mot. to Dismiss Exs. A, B. The "Introduction" to the Privacy 8 Policy states, 9 Of course, maintaining your trust is our top concern, so we adhere to the following principles to protect your privacy:

United States District Court For the Northern District of California

* All information that you provide will be protected with industry standard 12 protocols and technology.

Id. The "Security" section of the Privacy Policy states, 14

In order to help secure your personal information, access to your data on LinkedIn is password-protected, and sensitive data (such as credit card information) is protected by SSL encryption when it is exchanged between your web browser and the LinkedIn website. To protect any data you store on our servers, LinkedIn also regularly audits its system for possible vulnerabilities and attacks, and we use a tier-one secured-access data center. However, since the internet is not a 100% secure environment, we cannot ensure or warrant the security of any information you transmit to LinkedIn. There is no guarantee that information may not be accessed, disclosed, altered, or destroyed by breach of any of our physical, technical, or managerial safeguards. It is your responsibility to protect the security of your login information. Please note that emails, instant messaging, and similar means of communication with other Users of LinkedIn are not encrypted, and we strongly advise you not to communicate any confidential information through these means.


For a monthly fee, members can upgrade to a paid "premium" account which grants them 24 increased networking tools and capabilities. FAC ¶ 14. Members who purchase a premium account 25 26 agree to the same terms and services of the User Agreement and Privacy Policy as if they were 2 non-paying members. Heath Decl. ¶ 3, Exs. A, C. 3 4 services. FAC ¶ 4. On June 6, 2012, the hackers posted approximately 6.5 million stolen LinkedIn 5 users' passwords on the Internet. Id. ¶ 27. Plaintiffs also allege that the stolen information also 6 included the users' email addresses. Id. ¶ 29. On or around June 9, 2012, LinkedIn released a 7 statement on its blog stating that it had recently completed a switch of its password encryption 8 method from a system that stored member passwords in a hashed*fn2 format to one that used both 9 salted*fn3 and hashed passwords for increased security. Id. ¶ 31. 10

Plaintiffs allege that sometime in 2012 hackers infiltrated LinkedIn's computer systems and Plaintiff Wright registered for a premium LinkedIn account on or around March 2010, paying a monthly fee of $99.95 for the premium, upgraded services. Id. ¶¶ 46--47. She alleges that 12 her password was one of the ones retrieved by the hackers and posted on the Internet on June 6, 13 December 2011 she has been paying $26.95 per month for a premium membership. Id. ¶¶ 38--40. 15

The FAC contains no allegation that Szpyrka's password or any other personal information was 16 stolen or posted on the Internet as a result of the 2012 hacking incident. 17

18 of Civil Procedure 23. Plaintiffs Szpyrka and Wright bring the action on behalf of themselves and a 19 "Premium Account Class" (the "Class") which is defined in the FAC as "All individuals and 20 entities in the United States who paid a monthly fee to LinkedIn for a premium account prior to 21

Subclass" (the "Subclass") which includes "[a]ll Premium Account Class members whose personal 23 information was compromised as a result of the data breach that occurred on or around June 6, 24 2 behalf of the Class: violation of California's Unfair Competition Law ("UCL"), Cal. Bus. & Prof. 3 (Count 3, as an alternative to Count 2); breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair 5 dealing (Count 6); breach of an implied contract to reasonably safeguard user information (Count 6 7); negligence (Count 8); and negligence per se (Count 9). Two Causes of Action are brought on 7 behalf of the Subclass: breach of contract (Count 4); restitution or unjust enrichment (Count 5, as 8 an alternative to Count 4). 9

The FAC contains a total of nine Causes of Action. Seven Causes of Action are brought on Code §§ 17200, et seq. (Count 1); breach of contract (Count 2); restitution or unjust enrichment 4 LinkedIn filed the present Motion to Dismiss the FAC on December 20, 2012. See Docket Item No. 59. A hearing was held before the Court on February 8, 2013. See Minute Entry, Docket Item No. 69. 12 13

16 satisfy the "case or controversy" requirement of Article III of the U.S. Constitution. To satisfy 17 Article III standing, plaintiff must allege: (1) an injury in fact that is concrete and particularized, as 18 well as actual and imminent; (2) that the injury is fairly traceable to the challenged action of the 19 defendant; and (3) that it is likely (not merely speculative) that injury will be redressed by a 20 favorable decision. Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Envtl. Servs. (TOC), Inc., 528 U.S. 167, 21 180--81 (2000); Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 561--62 (1992). A suit brought by a 22 plaintiff without Article III standing is not a "case or controversy," and an Article III federal court 23 therefore lacks subject matter jurisdiction over the suit. Steel Co. v. Citizens for a Better 24 12(b)(1). See id. at 109--10. A defendant may challenge standing through a Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(1) motion and may either attack the complaint on its face or the existence of 27 28


A.Article III Standing

An Article III federal court must ask whether a plaintiff has suffered sufficient injury to Environment, 523 U.S. 83, 101 (1998). In that event, the suit should be dismissed under Rule jurisdiction in fact. Thornhill Publ'g Co. v. Gen. Tel. & Elecs. Corp., 594 F.2d 730, 732--33 (9th 2 Cir. 1979). At least one named plaintiff must have suffered an injury in fact. See Lierboe v. State 3 Farm Mut. Auto. Ins. Co., 350 F.3d 1018, 1022 (9th Cir. 2003) ("[I]f none of the named plaintiffs 4 purporting to represent a class establishes the requisite of a case or controversy with the 5 defendants, none may seek relief on behalf of himself or any other member of the class."). The 6 party seeking to invoke federal court jurisdiction has the burden of establishing the constitutional 7 elements of standing. See Lujan, 504 U.S. at 561. 8 9

of this theory, they contend that they did not receive the full benefit of their bargain for the paid 12 premium memberships. Plaintiffs allege that in consideration of their payments, LinkedIn promised 13 to secure their personal information "with industry standard protocols and technology." They also 14 contend that they would not have otherwise purchased the premium memberships had they known 15 that LinkedIn would not protect their information in the manner it had allegedly promised. The 16

2012 hacking incident, they argue, shows that they did not receive the promised security for which 17 they paid-thus amounting to economic harm. 18

Economic harm based on the "benefit of the bargain" theory Plaintiff proffers has been 19 recognized as a viable basis for standing. See, e.g., Chavez v. Blue Sky Natural Beverage Co., 340 20 Fed. App'x 359, 360--61 (9th Cir. 2009) (finding a sufficient pleading of injury-in-fact where a 21 plaintiff alleged that he would not have paid for allegedly mislabeled products had he known the 22 truth about the products' geographic origins); Khasin v. Hershey, No. 12-CV-01862 EJD, 2012 23 WL 5471153, at *6 (N.D. Cal. Nov. 9, 2012) (finding sufficient standing where a plaintiff alleged 24 that he had "lost money or property when he purchased the [food] products in question because he 25 did not receive the full value of those products as advertised and labeled due to the alleged 26 misrepresentation"). In such cases, plaintiffs had standing to sue where they alleged that they 27 28

B.Economic Harm

Plaintiffs argue that they have standing to sue under a theory of economic harm. In support would not have purchased a food product had they known that the product was not as advertised on 2 the product's labeling. Id. The Court distinguishes those cases from the present case for several 3 reasons. 4

5 the security services which they claim were not provided. Plaintiffs contend that in exchange for 6 the fees they paid for the premium membership account, LinkedIn promised, among other things, 7 to provide them with a particular level of security to protect their data. However, the User 8

First, the FAC fails to sufficiently allege that Plaintiffs actually provided consideration for Agreement and Privacy Policy are the same for the premium membership as they are for the non-9 paying basic membership. Any alleged promise LinkedIn made to paying premium account holders 10 regarding security protocols was also made to non-paying members. Thus, when a member

purchases a premium account upgrade, the bargain is not for a particular level of security, but 12 actually for the advanced networking tools and capabilities to facilitate enhanced usage of 13

LinkedIn's services. The FAC does not sufficiently demonstrate that included in Plaintiffs' bargain 14 for premium membership was the promise of a particular (or greater) level of security that was not 15 part of the free membership. 16

Second, unlike in the food-labeling misrepresentation cases, Plaintiffs do not even allege that they actually read the alleged misrepresentation-the Privacy Policy-which would be 18 necessary to support a claim of misrepresentation. See Chavez, 340 Fed. App'x at 361--62; Kwikset 19 Corp. v. Superior Court, 51 Cal.4th 310 (2011). Because a causal connection between a 20 defendant's actions and plaintiff's alleged harm is required for standing, Plaintiffs have not 21 established standing based on an alleged misrepresentation. 22

23 primarily based on an alleged breach of contract.*fn4 The essential elements of a breach of contract 24

Third, as Plaintiffs' counsel asserted in oral arguments before the Court, Plaintiffs' suit is claim are (1) the contract, (2) plaintiff's performance or excuse for nonperformance, (3) 2 defendant's breach, and (4) the resulting damages to plaintiff. See Hamilton v. Greenwich 3 68 Cal.2d 822, 830 (1968)). Plaintiffs contend that LinkedIn breached the contract by not providing 5 the level of security it allegedly promised to provide. The economic loss Plaintiff alleges-not 6 receiving the full benefit of the bargain-cannot be the "resulting damages" of this alleged breach. 7

Rather, this injury could only have occurred at some point before the breach, at the time the parties 8 entered into the contract. As such, the economic damages Plaintiffs proffer cannot form the basis of 9 standing for their breach of contract--related claims.*fn5

Investors XXVI, LLC, 195 Cal.App.4th 1602, 1614 (2011) (quoting Reichert v. General Ins. Co., 4

And fourth, in cases where the alleged wrong stems from allegations about insufficient performance or how a product functions, courts have required plaintiffs to allege "something more" 12 than "overpaying for a 'defective' product." In re Toyota Motor Corp., 790 F. Supp. 2d 1152, 1165 13 (N.D. Cal. Apr. 16, 2009); Boysen v. Wallgreen Co., No. 11-CV-6262, 2012 WL 2953069 (N.D. 15 Cal. July 19, 2012). Plaintiffs do not argue that they did not receive security services; rather, they 16 argue the security services were defective in some way, as evinced by the 2012 hacking incident. 17

This is not the case where consumers paid for a product, and the product they received was 18 different from the one as advertised on the product's packaging. See, e.g., Khasin, No. 12-CV-19 01862 EJD, 2012 WL 5471153. Because Plaintiffs take issue with the way in which LinkedIn 20 performed the security services, they must alleged "something more" than pure economic harm. 21 See Toyota Motor Corp., 790 F. Supp. 2d at 1165. This "something more" could be a harm that 22 occurred as a result of the deficient security services and security breach, such as, for example, 23 theft of their personally identifiable information. 24 25

n.11 (C.D. Cal 2011); see also Whitson v. Bumbo, No. C 07-05597 MHP, 2009 WL 1515597 14

For the foregoing reasons, Plaintiffs cannot rely solely on the "benefit of the bargain" 2 theory of economic harm to sufficiently meet the requirements for Article III standing. 3 4

C.Increased Risk of Future Theory

Plaintiff Wright offers an additional theory of injury-in-fact to support her claim of 6 standing. She contends that, as a result of the 2012 hacking incident and the posting of her 7 password on the Internet, there is now an increased risk of future harm. Pls.' Opp'n to Def.'s Mot. 8 to Dismiss 10. The Court finds that standing on this ground has not been met because these 9 allegations have not been alleged in the FAC. Plaintiff Wright merely alleges that her LinkedIn 10 password was "publically posted on the Internet on June 6, 2012." FAC ¶ 49. In doing so, Plaintiff Wright fails to show how this amounts to a legally cognizable injury, such as, for example, identify 12 theft or theft of her personally identifiable information. 13 14

III.Conclusion and Order

Because the Court has found that Plaintiffs have failed to meet the requirements of Article III standing, Defendant LinkedIn's Motion to Dismiss for lack of standing is GRANTED without 17 prejudice. Accordingly, Plaintiffs' FAC will be DISMSSED WITH LEAVE TO AMEND. Any 18 amended 19 20 21


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