The opinion of the court was delivered by: Honorable Larry Alan Burns United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART MOTION TO DISMISS
On May 9, 2012, Plaintiff Angela Finn, proceeding pro se, filed her first amended complaint (FAC). The FAC alleges that Defendant United Healthcare Insurance Company told her a particular procedure would be covered, up to 70% of reasonable and customary fees. The clinic, Ambulatory Care Surgery Center ("ACSC") confirmed this, and was also told that payment would be subject to a $3,000 deductible charge and a $3,000 stop loss. Finn had the procedure and was billed $16,293.01, but United paid only $3,303.30, leaving her liable to ACSC for the remainder.
The FAC alleges United is the claims administrator under an employer-sponsored health benefit plan, which is subject to ERISA. The FAC seeks relief under ERISA, § 502(a)(1)(b) (29 U.S.C. § 1132(a)(1)(b)), and also under state-law theories of negligent misrepresentation and promissory estoppel.
United moved to dismiss the FAC, arguing it is not a proper Defendant, Finn failed to allege what plan provisions entitled her to greater coverage than she received, and also that her state-law claims are preempted by ERISA.
Standard for Motion to Dismiss
A Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss tests the sufficiency of the complaint. Navarro v. Block, 250 F.3d 729, 732 (9th Cir. 2001). In ruling on a motion to dismiss, the Court accepts all allegations of material fact in the complaint as true and construes them in the light most favorable to the non-moving party. Cedars--Sinai Medical Center v. National League of Postmasters of U.S., 497 F.3d 972, 975 (9th Cir. 2007).
To avoid dismissal, the complaint must "give the defendant fair notice of what the . . . claim is and the grounds upon which it rests" and its factual allegations must "raise the right to relief above a speculative level." Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007). The complaint must contain enough factual allegations that, if accepted as true, would state a claim for relief that is "plausible on its face." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009).
Finn in her opposition to the motions to dismiss again cites the old standard set forth in Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41 (1957), under which a Rule 12(b)(6) dismissal was appropriate only where "it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitle him to relief." But the Supreme Court expressly repudiated that standard in Twombly.
Whether United Is a Proper Party
The FAC makes the nonsensical allegation that the health benefit plan itself "was and is an ERISA fiduciary or plan administrator. . . " (FAC, ¶ 4.) It is difficult to know what to make of this because a benefit plan is incapable of administering itself or serving as fiduciary of itself. See 29 U.S.C. § 1002(21)(A) (identifying which persons are fiduciaries). It also identifies United as the "claims administrator" (FAC, ¶ 3) without alleging whether United is a fiduciary. Compare Frost v. Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 320 Fed. Appx. 589, 590--91 (9th Cir. 2009) with Kyle Rys., Inc. v. Pac. Admin. Servs., Inc., 990 F.2d 513, 516 (9th Cir.1993) (explaining that plan administrators are not fiduciaries when they merely perform ministerial duties or process claims).
In order to raise any ERISA claims, Finn must allege facts showing at
least that United was a fiduciary. See Cyr v. Reliance Standard Life
Ins. Co., 642 F.3d 1202, 1207 (9th
2011) (en banc) (where plan administrator had no authority to resolve
benefit claims or authority to pay them, insurer who did have such
authority was proper defendant in action for benefits).*fn1
She has not done this.
To the extent Finn's claims for negligent misrepresentation and for promissory estoppel are based on United's failure to pay benefits provided for under the plan, they are preempted by ERISA. See Aetna Life Ins. Co. v. Bayona, 223 F.3d 1030, 1034 (9th Cir. 2000) (quoting Ellenburg v. Brockway, Inc., 763 F.2d 1091, 1095 (9th Cir.1985)) ("We have held that 'ERISA preempts common law theories of breach of contract implied in fact, promissory estoppel, estoppel by conduct, fraud and deceit and breach of contract.'"); Bernstein v. Health Net Life Ins. Co., 2012 WL 5989348, slip op. at *5 (S.D.Cal., Nov. 29, 2012) (citations ...