The opinion of the court was delivered by: Jean Rosenbluthu.s. Magistrate Judge
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER AFFIRMING THE COMMISSIONER
Plaintiff seeks review of the Commissioner's final decision denying his application for Social Security disability insurance benefits ("DIB") and Supplemental Security Income benefits ("SSI"). The parties consented to the jurisdiction of the undersigned U.S. Magistrate Judge pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 636(c). This matter is before the Court on the parties' Joint Stipulation, filed January 2, 2013, which the Court has taken under submission without oral argument. For the reasons stated below, the Commissioner's decision is affirmed and this action is dismissed.
Plaintiff was born on February 17, 1951. (Administrative Record ("AR") 32.) He has some elementary-school education and speaks "some" English. (AR 32-33, 218.) Plaintiff previously worked as a warehouse worker and assembler. (AR 43.)
On April 10, 2009, Plaintiff filed applications for DIB and SSI. (AR 14, 60-61.) Plaintiff alleged that he had been unable to work since April 20, 2007, because of his status after hip replacement, osteoarthritis of the left shoulder, obesity, and a mood disorder. (Id.) His applications were denied initially, on July 14, 2009 (AR 80-85), and upon reconsideration, on October 23, 2009 (AR 88-93).
After Plaintiff's applications were denied, he requested a hearing before an ALJ. (AR 94-97.) A hearing was held on October 19, 2010, at which Plaintiff, who was represented by counsel, appeared and testified through an interpreter; a medical expert, a vocational expert ("VE"), and Plaintiff's son also testified. (AR 29-54.) In a written decision issued on December 8, 2010, the ALJ determined that Plaintiff was not disabled. (AR 8-28.) On March 28, 2012, the Appeals Council denied Plaintiff's request for review. (AR 1-5.) This action followed.
Pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 405(g), a district court may review the Commissioner's decision to deny benefits. The ALJ's findings and decision should be upheld if they are free of legal error and supported by substantial evidence based on the record as a whole. § 405(g); Richardson v. Perales, 402 U.S. 389, 401, 91 S. Ct. 1420, 1427, 28 L. Ed. 2d 842 (1971); Parra v. Astrue, 481 F.3d 742, 746 (9th Cir. 2007). Substantial evidence means such evidence as a reasonable person might accept as adequate to support a conclusion. Richardson, 402 U.S. at 401; Lingenfelter v. Astrue, 504 F.3d 1028, 1035 (9th Cir. 2007). It is more than a scintilla but less than a preponderance. Lingenfelter, 504 F.3d at 1035 (citing Robbins v. Soc. Sec. Admin., 466 F.3d 880, 882 (9th Cir. 2006)). To determine whether substantial evidence supports a finding, the reviewing court "must review the administrative record as a whole, weighing both the evidence that supports and the evidence that detracts from the Commissioner's conclusion." Reddick v. Chater, 157 F.3d 715, 720 (9th Cir. 1996). "If the evidence can reasonably support either affirming or reversing," the reviewing court "may not substitute its judgment" for that of the Commissioner. Id. at 720-21.
IV. THE EVALUATION OF DISABILITY
People are "disabled" for purposes of receiving Social Security benefits if they are unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity owing to a physical or mental impairment that is expected to result in death or which has lasted, or is expected to last, for a continuous period of at least 12 months. 42 U.S.C. § 423(d)(1)(A); Drouin v. Sullivan, 966 F.2d 1255, 1257 (9th Cir. 1992).
A. The Five-Step Evaluation Process The ALJ follows a five-step sequential evaluation process in assessing whether a claimant is disabled. 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520(a)(4), 416.920(a)(4); Lester v. Chater, 81 F.3d 821, 828 n.5 (9th Cir. 1995) (as amended Apr. 9, 1996). In the first step, the Commissioner must determine whether the claimant is currently engaged in substantial gainful activity; if so, the claimant is not disabled and the claim must be denied. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(i), 416.920(a)(4)(i). If the claimant is not engaged in substantial gainful activity, the second step requires the Commissioner to determine whether the claimant has a "severe" impairment or combination of impairments significantly limiting his ability to do basic work activities; if not, a finding of not disabled is made and the claim must be denied. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(ii), 416.920(a)(4)(ii). If the claimant has a "severe" impairment or combination of impairments, the third step requires the Commissioner to determine whether the impairment or combination of impairments meets or equals an impairment in the Listing of Impairments ("Listing") set forth at 20 C.F.R., Part 404, Subpart P, Appendix 1; if so, disability is conclusively presumed and benefits are awarded. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(iii), 416.920(a)(4)(iii). If the claimant's impairment or combination of impairments does not meet or equal an impairment in the Listing, the fourth step requires the Commissioner to determine whether the claimant has sufficient residual functional capacity ("RFC")*fn2 to perform his past work; if so, the claimant is not disabled and the claim must be denied. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(iv), 416.920(a)(4)(iv). The claimant has the burden of proving that he is unable to perform past relevant work. Drouin, 966 F.2d at 1257. If the claimant meets that burden, a prima facie case of disability is established. Id. If that happens or if the claimant has no past relevant work, the Commissioner then bears the burden of establishing that the claimant is not disabled because he can perform other substantial gainful work available in the national economy. §§ 404.1520(a)(4)(v), 416.920(a)(4)(v). That determination comprises the fifth and final step in the sequential analysis. §§ 404.1520, 416.920; Lester, 81 F.3d at 828 n.5; Drouin, 966 F.2d at 1257.
B. The ALJ's Application of the Five-Step Process At step one, the ALJ found that Plaintiff had not engaged in any substantial gainful activity since April 20, 2007. (AR 16.) At step two, the ALJ concluded that Plaintiff had the severe impairments of "status post hip replacement, osteoarthritis of the left shoulder and lumbar spine, and obesity." (AR 16.) He concluded that Plaintiff's "medically determinable mental impairment of mood disorder" was not severe. (AR 17-18.) At step three, the ALJ determined that Plaintiff's impairments did not meet or equal any of the impairments in the Listing. (AR 18.) At step four, the ALJ found that Plaintiff retained the RFC to perform "less than the full range of medium work," with certain additional limitations. (AR 18-19.) Based on the VE's testimony, the ALJ concluded that Plaintiff was unable to perform any past relevant work as actually or generally performed. (AR 22.) At step five, the ALJ concluded that Plaintiff was not disabled under the framework of the Medical-Vocational Guidelines, 20 C.F.R. Part 404, Subpart P, Appendix 2, and that jobs existed in significant numbers in the national economy that Plaintiff could perform. (AR 22-23.) Based on the VE's testimony, the ALJ found that Plaintiff could perform such jobs as hand packager (DOT 920.587-018, 1991 WL 687916) and dining room attendant (DOT 311.677-018, 1991 WL 672696). (AR 23.) Accordingly, the ALJ determined that Plaintiff was not disabled. (Id.)
Plaintiff alleges that the ALJ erred in (1) finding that his mental impairment was not severe; (2) evaluating the lay-witness testimony of Plaintiff's son; and (3) evaluating Plaintiff's credibility.*fn3 (J. Stip. at 3-4.)
A. The ALJ Did Not Err in Determining that Plaintiff's Mood Disorder Was Not a Severe Impairment
Plaintiff first contends that the ALJ erred in determining that his mood disorder was not a severe impairment. (J. Stip. at 3-6.) Reversal is not warranted on this basis because substantial evidence in the record supports the ALJ's finding that Plaintiff's mood disorder was not severe.
At step two of the sequential evaluation process, a plaintiff has the burden to present evidence of medical signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings that establish a medically determinable physical or mental impairment that is severe and can be expected to result in death or last for a continuous period of at least 12 months. Ukolov v. Barnhart, 420 F.3d 1002, 1004-05 (9th Cir. 2005) (citing 42 U.S.C. §§ 423(d)(3), 1382c(a)(3)(D));*fn4 see 20 C.F.R. §§ 404.1520, 416.920, 404.1509, 416.909. Substantial evidence supports an ALJ's determination that a claimant is not disabled at step two when "there are no medical signs or laboratory findings to substantiate the existence of a medically determinable physical or mental impairment." Ukolov, 420 F.3d at 1004-05 (citing SSR 96-4p). An impairment may never be found on the basis of the claimant's subjective symptoms alone. Id. at 1005.
Step two is "a de minimis screening device [used] to dispose of groundless claims." Smolen v. Chater, 80 F.3d 1273, 1290 (9th Cir. 1996). Applying the applicable standard of review to the requirements of step two, a court must determine whether an ALJ had substantial evidence to find that the medical evidence clearly established that the claimant did not have a medically severe impairment or combination of impairments. Webb v. Barnhart, 433 F.3d 683, 687 (9th Cir. 2005); see also Yuckert v. Bowen, 841 F.2d 303, 306 (9th Cir. 1988) ("Despite the deference usually accorded to the Secretary's application of regulations, numerous appellate courts have imposed a narrow construction upon the severity regulation applied here."). An impairment or combination of ...