The opinion of the court was delivered by: M. James Lorenz United States District Court Judge
ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS WITH PREJUDICE [doc. #17] and DIRECTING ENTRY OF JUDGMENT
Defendant Cenlar Agency, Inc. moves to dismiss plaintiff's*fn1
first amended class action complaint. The motion has been
fully briefed and supplemental case law has been received from both
parties. The Court finds this motion suitable for determination on the
papers submitted and without oral argument under Civil Local Rule
In this action, plaintiff alleges violation of California Penal Code §632; invasion of privacy under California common law, and negligence in violating the common law duties not to invade privacy. The allegations arise under a single phone call made by defendant to Schuyler Hoffman, an attorney at Hoffman & Forde, a law firm that offers legal representation to home owners with mortgage problems. Plaintiff Moore is the secretary at the law firm who answered the phone call from defendant. Moore was not the intended recipient of the call. That portion of the phone call between Moore and Celnar was recorded without Moore being advised that the call was being recorded. Once plaintiff appropriately directed the call to Hoffman, he gave his permission for the call to be recorded.
Defendant moves to dismiss the FAC under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 12(b)(1) and 12(b)(6) on the grounds that Moore lacks standing to represent the putative class, and plaintiff has failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted because there was no reasonable expectation of confidentiality on the part of plaintiff, and California's Privacy Act is preempted by the federal Wiretap Act. The Court notes that plaintiff has no objection to the dismissal of her cause of action under California Penal Code §631. (Oppo. at 25.)
Legal Standard for Failure to State a Claim
The court must dismiss a cause of action for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6). A motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6) tests the legal sufficiency of the complaint. Navarro v. Block, 250 F.3d 729, 732 (9th Cir. 2001). The court must accept all allegations of material fact as true and construe them in light most favorable to the nonmoving party. Cedars-Sanai Med. Ctr. v. Nat'l League of Postmasters of U.S., 497 F.3d 972, 975 (9th Cir. 2007). Material allegations, even if doubtful in fact, are assumed to be true. Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007). However, the court need not "necessarily assume the truth of legal conclusions merely because they are cast in the form of factual allegations." Warren v. Fox Family Worldwide, Inc., 328 F.3d 1136, 1139 (9th Cir. 2003) (internal quotation marks omitted). In fact, the court does not need to accept any legal conclusions as true. Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937, 1949 (2009)
"While a complaint attacked by a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss does not need detailed factual allegations, a plaintiff's obligation to provide the 'grounds' of his 'entitlement to relief' requires more than labels and conclusions, and a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do." Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 (internal citations omitted). Instead, the allegations in the complaint "must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level." Id. "To survive a motion to dismiss, a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to 'state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.'" Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. at 1949 (citing Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570). "A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged." Id. "The plausibility standard is not akin to a 'probability requirement,' but it asks for more than a sheer possibility that a defendant has acted unlawfully."
A complaint may be dismissed as a matter of law either for lack of a cognizable legal theory or for insufficient facts under a cognizable theory. Robertson v. Dean Witter Reynolds, Inc., 749 F.2d 530, 534 (9th Cir. 1984).
Generally, courts may not consider material outside the complaint when ruling on a motion to dismiss. Hal Roach Studios, Inc. v. Richard Feiner & Co., 896 F.2d 1542, 1555 n.19 (9th Cir. 1990). But documents specifically identified in the complaint whose authenticity is not questioned by parties may also be considered. Fecht v. Price Co., 70 F.3d 1078, 1080 n.1 (9th Cir. 1995) (superceded by statutes on other grounds).
A court also may consider certain materials, such as documents attached to the complaint, documents incorporated by reference in the complaint, or matters of judicial notice, without converting the motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment. See Van Buskirk v. CNN, 284 F.3d 977, 980 (9th Cir. 2002). Defendant argues that the recording and transcript of the phone call at issue in this action may be considered under the doctrine of incorporation by reference.
"A copy of a written instrument that is an exhibit to a pleading is a part of the pleading for all purposes." FED.R.CIV .P. 10(c). A document not attached to a complaint may be incorporated by reference into a complaint if the plaintiff refers extensively to the document or the document forms the basis of the plaintiff's claim. See Van Buskirk, 284 F.3d at 980. The defendant may offer such a document, and the district court may treat such a document as part of the complaint, and thus may assume that its contents are true for purposes of a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6). For example, the doctrine of incorporation by reference may apply when a plaintiff's claim about insurance coverage is based on the contents of a coverage plan.
Here, defendant seeks to incorporate by reference the tape recording and transcript of the recording made of the phone conversation between plaintiff Moore and Celnar's representative, Ms Trion. The gravamen of the FAC is that defendant wrongfully recorded its telephone conversation with plaintiff Moore. Because the audio copy and transcript of the recording are integral to plaintiff's claims, they will be incorporated by reference and the Court will review the ...