California Court of Appeals, Second District, Fourth Division
APPEAL from a judgment of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County No. BC392082, Richard L. Fruin, Judge.
Reback, McAndrews, Kjar, Warford & Stockalper and Robert C. Reback; Cole Pedroza and Curtis A. Cole for Defendant, Appellant and Cross-Respondent.
Tucker Ellis, E. Todd Chayet, Rebecca A. Lefler, Corena G. Larimer; and Fred J. Hiestand as Amici Curiae on behalf of Defendant, Appellant and Cross-Respondent.
Balaban & Speilberger, Daniel Balaban, Andrew J. Spielberger; Esner, Chang & Boyer, Stuart B. Esner and Holly N. Boyer for Plaintiff, Respondent and Cross-Appellant.
EPSTEIN, P. J.
In this case, we deal with the intersection of three statutes addressing the recovery of damages: Civil Code section 3333.2,  part of the Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act of 1975 (MICRA), limiting recovery of noneconomic damages for medical malpractice to a total of $250, 000; section 1431.2, part of the Fair Responsibility Act of 1986 adopted by the passage of Proposition 51, which provides that liability for noneconomic damages is several only, in accordance with the percentage of fault; and Code of Civil Procedure section 877, which addresses the impact of a good faith settlement on settling and nonsettling tortfeasors.
Appellant Franklin Moser, a physician, challenges the damages awarded against him in this medical malpractice action, claiming the trial court should have offset the entire award, including both economic and noneconomic damages, based on pretrial good faith settlements by two codefendants. In his cross-appeal, respondent Hamid Rashidi raises constitutional challenges to the limitation on noneconomic damages in MICRA. We find appellant was entitled to an offset as to the economic damages awarded by the jury and to a portion of the noneconomic damages, and reject respondent’s constitutional challenges to MICRA.
FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL SUMMARY
According to the allegations of the charging pleading, in April 2007, 26-year-old Rashidi went to the emergency room at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center with a severe nose bleed. He was treated and discharged. In May 2007, he again went to the emergency room at Cedars-Sinai for a severe nose bleed. This time, he was examined by Dr. Moser, who advised him “to have an operation to treat his nose bleeds and/or arteriovenous malformation.”
The operation, an embolization procedure, was performed by Dr. Moser at Cedars-Sinai the same day. It involved insertion of a catheter into an artery in Mr. Rashidi’s leg and up into the nose, and injection of embospheres into the catheter to permanently and irreversibly occlude blood vessels. The embosphere microspheres used by Dr. Moser were manufactured by Biosphere Medical, Inc. When Rashidi regained consciousness, he was blind in one eye. The blindness is permanent.
Mr. Rashidi brought this action against Dr. Moser, Cedars-Sinai, and Biosphere Medical. He alleged causes of action against Dr. Moser and Cedars-Sinai for medical malpractice and medical battery. He also alleged causes of action against Biosphere Medical for product liability based on design or manufacturing defect, failure to warn, negligence per se, breach of express and implied warranty, and misrepresentation. The theory against Biosphere Medical was that the particles it manufactured had specific chemical and elastic physical qualities which enhanced their ability to travel through very small blood vessels and collateral veins, causing a significant risk that they would travel through the blood system to sites other than the intended surgical sites, and that they did so in this case, causing the blindness. Mr. Rashidi alleged that Biosphere failed to disclose this risk, and failed to disclose that the embosphere microspheres were of nonuniform size, instead marketing the product as being of uniform size which allowed for accurate targeting of particular arteries.
Mr. Rashidi settled with Biosphere Medical for $2 million. He settled with Cedars-Sinai Medical Center for $350, 000. The settling defendants each moved for a determination that its settlement was in good faith. Notice of this motion was served on all parties, including Dr. Moser. The motions were unopposed and were granted by the court.
Trial proceeded against Dr. Moser, the remaining defendant. The jury found he was negligent in the diagnosis or treatment of Mr. Rashidi and that this negligence was a cause of injury to Mr. Rashidi. It awarded Mr. Rashidi $125, 000 present cash value for future medical care resulting from this negligence, $331, 250 for past noneconomic damages, and $993, 750 for future noneconomic damages. In accordance with MICRA’s cap on noneconomic damages, the court reduced the noneconomic damages to $250, 000.
Dr. Moser argued there should be an offset against this judgment, based upon the pretrial settlements with Cedars-Sinai and Biosphere Medical that were found to be in good faith. The trial court rejected this argument, finding no basis for allocating the settlement sums between economic and noneconomic damages. As the court explained, the agreements with the settling defendants did not make any such allocation, those defendants did not participate in the trial, and the jury was not requested to make any finding of proportionate fault attributed to ...