United States District Court, N.D. California, San Francisco Division
ORDER GRANTING IN PART DEFENDANTS' MOTIONS TO DISMISS AND ORDERING PLAINTIFF TO SHOW CAUSE
RICHARD SEEBORG, District Judge.
This action was removed to federal court following years of litigation before the Alameda County Superior Court. Several motions are now pending: defendant Citibank's motions to dismiss and to strike portions of plaintiff's fourth amended complaint (FAC) and defendant American Home Mortgage Servicing, Inc.'s motion to dismiss the FAC. For the following reasons, defendants' motions to dismiss are granted in part with respect to plaintiff's federal claims. In particular, the eighteenth claim for relief (under RICO) is dismissed with leave to amend and the eighth claim (under RESPA) is dismissed with prejudice and without leave to amend. In addition, plaintiff is ordered to show cause why his remaining federal claim against defendant ABC should not be dismissed. If plaintiff wishes to remain in federal court, he must file an amended complaint and respond to this order within thirty (30) days.
Plaintiff Donald Ray Hopkins contends that defendants Citibank, Homeward Residential Inc. (Homeward) f/k/a American Home Mortgages Servicing Inc. (AHMSI),  and American Home Mortgage Corp. d/b/a American Brokers Conduit (ABC) conspired to foreclose upon his home in Oakland, California. According to Hopkins, AHMSI and ABC secretly instructed his bank, Citibank, to cancel several timely electronic mortgage payments. Hopkins avers that defendants blamed him for the resulting nonpayment, thereby creating a pretext for the subsequent non-judicial foreclosure of his home, which they allegedly sold at a significant profit.
Hopkins filed this action in the Alameda County Superior Court in June 2011. Some two years and four amended complaints later, Hopkins for the first time alleged several federal claims for relief in August 2013. Defendants removed, contending this court has original jurisdiction over Hopkins' federal claims and supplemental jurisdiction over his state law claims. Shortly thereafter, Citigroup filed motions to strike and to dismiss the FAC, with AHMSI bringing its own motion to dismiss. More than two weeks after the opposition deadlines passed for all three aforementioned motions, Hopkins moved to stay these proceedings, because defendant ABC, the purported originator and holder of the mortgage at issue, had filed for bankruptcy protection. (ECF No. 29; ECF No. 35).
A previous order denied Hopkins' motion to stay and ordered him to file responses to defendants' motions by December 17, 2013. (ECF No. 38). Hopkins filed separate oppositions to Citibank's and AHMSI's motions to dismiss, but did not oppose Citibank's motion to strike. (ECF No. 39; ECF No. 40). Hopkins argues that all of his claims are properly pleaded or, in the alternative, that leave to amend is warranted. Citibank and AHMSI filed replies requesting Hopkins' claims be dismissed with prejudice. The motions were submitted without oral argument pursuant to Civil Local Rule 7-1(b).
III. LEGAL STANDARD
A complaint must contain "a short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief." Fed.R.Civ.P. 8(a)(2). While "detailed factual allegations are not required, " a complaint must have sufficient factual allegations to "state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 566 U.S. 652, 678 (2009) (citing Bell Atlantic v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 570 (2007)). A claim is facially plausible "when the pleaded factual content allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged." Id. This standard asks for "more than a sheer possibility that a defendant acted unlawfully." Id. The determination is a context-specific task requiring the court "to draw in its judicial experience and common sense." Id. at 1950.
A motion to dismiss a complaint under Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure tests the legal sufficiency of the claims alleged in the complaint. See Parks Sch. of Bus., Inc. v. Symington, 51 F.3d 1480, 1484 (9th Cir. 1995). Dismissal under Rule 12(b)(6) may be based on either the "lack of a cognizable legal theory" or on "the absence of sufficient facts alleged under a cognizable legal theory." Balistreri v. Pacifica Police Dep't, 901 F.2d 696, 699 (9th Cir. 1990). When evaluating such a motion, the court must accept all material allegations in the complaint as true, even if doubtful, and construe them in the light most favorable to the non-moving party. Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570. "[C]onclusory allegations of law and unwarranted inferences, " however, "are insufficient to defeat a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim." Epstein v. Wash. Energy Co., 83 F.3d 1136, 1140 (9th Cir. 1996); see also Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 ("threadbare recitals of the elements of the claim for relief, supported by mere conclusory statements, " are not taken as true).
A. Eighth Claim for Relief for Violating the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA)
Under RESPA, "[e]ach transferee servicer to whom the servicing of any federally related mortgage loan is assigned, sold, or transferred shall notify the borrower of any such assignment, sale, or transfer." 12 U.S.C § 2605(c)(1) (2012). RESPA also requires loan servicers to respond to Qualified Written Requests (QWR) submitted by borrowers. § 2605(e). Hopkins alleges AHMSI violated RESPA, because AHMSI failed to provide (1) notice when it began servicing the loan, (2) notice when AHMSI filed for bankruptcy, (3) copies of the operative loan documents, and (4) a response to Hopkins' March 30, 2012 QWR. (FAC, Exb. A at ¶¶ 22, 69-70). As an initial matter, it is not clear that RESPA requires loan servicers to provide borrowers with notice of bankruptcy proceedings or copies of loan documents. Hopkins does not invoke a single piece of legal authority to support his contrary contention.
More importantly, Hopkins fails to allege any pecuniary loss attributable to the RESPA violations. This defect is fatal to his RESPA claims. RESPA provides that anyone who fails to comply with its provisions shall be liable to the borrower for "any actual damages to the borrower as a result of the failure[.]" 12 U.S.C. § 2605(f). "Although this section does not explicitly set this out as a pleading standard, a number of courts have read the statute as requiring a showing of pecuniary damage in order to state a claim." Allen v. United Financial Mortg. Corp., 660 F.Supp.2d 1089, 1097 (N.D. Cal 2009). To advance a RESPA claim, a "[p]laintiff must, at a minimum, also allege that the breach resulted in actual damages." Id. (citing Hutchinson v. Delaware Sav. Bank FSB, 410 F.Supp.2d 374, 383 (D.N.J. 2006)). "This pleading requirement has the effect of limiting the cause of action to circumstances in which plaintiffs can show that a failure of notice has caused them actual harm." Id. at 1097. Courts, however, "have interpreted this requirement [to plead pecuniary damage] liberally." Yulaeva v. Greenpoint Mortgage Funding, Inc., CIVS-09-1504 ...