California Court of Appeals, Second District, Fifth Division
CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY et al., Plaintiffs and Respondents,
DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND WILDLIFE, Defendant and Appellant THE NEWHALL LAND AND FARMING COMPANY, Real Party in Interest and Appellant. (###Party2###)
[REVIEW GRANTED BY CAL. SUPREME COURT]
[CERTIFIED FOR PARTIAL PUBLICATION[*]]
APPEAL from a judgment of the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, No. BS131347 Ann I. Jones, Judge.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Thomas R. Gibson, John H. Mattox; Thomas Law Group, Tina A. Thomas, Ashle T. Crocker and Amy R. Higuera, for Defendant and Appellant.
Gatzke Dillon & Ballance, Mark J. Dillon, David P. Hubbard; Morrison & Foerster, Miriam A. Vogel; Nielsen Merksamer Parinello Gross & Leoni, Arthur G. Scotland; Downey Brand and Patrick G. Mitchell, for Real Party in Interest and Appellant.
John Buse, Adam Keats; Chatten-Brown and Carstens, Jan Chatten-Brown and Doug Carstens, for Plaintiffs and Respondents Center for Biological Diversity, Friends of the Santa Clara River, Santa Clarita Organization for Planning and the Environment, and California Native Plant Society.
Jason Weiner; Chatten-Brown and Carstens, Jan Chatten-Brown and Doug Carstens, for Plaintiffs and Respondents Wishtoyo Foundation/Ventura Coastkeeper.
TURNER, P. J.
Defendant, California's Department of Fish and Wildlife (the department), and real party in interest, The Newhall Land and Farming Company (the developer), appeal from a judgment granting a mandate petition. The judgment, entered October 15, 2012, was granted in favor of plaintiffs: Center for Biological Diversity; Friends of the Santa Clara River; Santa Clarita Organization for Planning the Environment; Wishtoyo Foundation/Ventura
Coastkeeper; and California Native Plant Society. The litigation and appeal arise from the department’s December 3, 2010: certification of the revised final environmental impact statement and impact report; approval of the Newhall Ranch Resource Management and Development Plan (resource management plan); the adoption of the Spineflower Conservation Plan (conservation plan) and Master Streambed Alteration Agreement (streambed alteration agreement); and issuance of two incidental take permits.
The environmental impact statement and report and other documents were jointly prepared by the department and the Army Corps of Engineers (the corps). For reasons we will explain, both federal and state environmental review were necessary for the project. For clarity’s sake, the environmental impact statement and report will be referred to as the environmental impact report as we are only reviewing the relevant state law issues.
For environmental impact report purposes, there are two components to the project. First, the environmental impact report assesses the effect of the resource management plan. The resource management plan includes the streambed alteration agreement. And the resource management plan necessarily resulted in the required issuance of two incidental take permits. Second, the environmental impact report evaluates the effects on the environment of the conservation plan. Both the resource management and conservation plans are stand-alone planning documents. We reverse.
II. FACTUAL MATTERS
A. Newhall Ranch Specific Plan (the specific plan)
On March 23, 1999, the County of Los Angeles Board of Supervisors (the county) specific plan: approved a final environmental impact report; adopted findings; approved a mitigation plan; and approved various aspects of the proposed development. For environmental review purposes, the project included a water reclamation plant. None of the issues relating to the water reclamation plant construction is pertinent to our discussion. The specific plan was challenged in Kern County Superior Court. (United Water Conservation Dist. v. County of Los Angeles (Super. Ct., Kern County, 2000, No. 239324RDR).) On August 1, 2000, Judge Roger W. Randall issued a writ of mandate. The county was ordered to void its certification of the final environmental impact report with respect to five different issues. In addition, the county was ordered to vacate the project approvals. In this regard, the county was directed to ensure consistency of the specific plan with broader general plan policies as they relate to natural resources and water supplies.
On May 27, 2003, the county approved the specific plan and an 85-page document entitled, “Additional [California Environmental Quality Act] Findings and Statement of Overriding Considerations Regarding The Newhall
Ranch....” The final additional findings and overriding considerations statement was necessitated by Judge Randall’s judgment. According to the May 27, 2003 findings: “As approved by the Board of Supervisors, the revised Specific Plan (May 2003) would include a broad range of residential, mixed-use and non-residential land uses within five villages. As revised by the Board of Supervisors, the Specific Plan allows for up to 21, 308 dwelling units (including 423 second units), 629 acres of mixed-use development, 67 acres of commercial uses, 249 acres of business park land uses, 37 acres of visitor-serving uses, 1, 014 acres of open space, including 181 acres of community parks and 833 acres in other open spaces, 5, 157 acres in special management areas, 55 acres in 10 neighborhood parks, 15-acre lake, public trail system, an 18-hole golf course, two fire stations, a public library, an electrical station, reservation of five elementary school sites, one junior high school site and one high school site, a 6.8 million gallon per day water reclamation plant and other associated community facilities. The build-out of the Specific Plan is projected to occur over approximately 25 to 30 years, depending upon economic and market conditions. Build-out of the Specific Plan would eventually result in an on-site resident population of 57, 903 persons.” The specific plan contemplated the need for future federal, state and other governmental agency environmental review, permits, agreements and authorizations.
After the May 27, 2003 approval of the specific plan as amended, the county filed a return in the Kern County litigation. Judge Randall approved the county’s May 27, 2003 determination and discharged the August 1, 2000 writ of mandate. There was an appeal which resulted in a settlement. On April 1, 2004, the appeal was dismissed. Judge Randall had no further contact with any of the issues in this case. The remainder of our discussion focuses on decisions made by Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Ann I. Jones. For clarity’s sake, we refer to Judge Jones as the trial court.
B. The Approval of the Final Environmental Impact Report
1. The specific plan and adjoining areas
The documents at issue resulted in environmental decisions affecting the specific plan and adjoining areas. According to the environmental impact report, the following is the project area: “The [project] area is located in a portion of the Santa Clara River Valley within northwestern Los Angeles County, between the city of Santa Clarita to the east and the Los Angeles County/Ventura County jurisdictional boundary line to the west. The Los Padres National Forest is located to the north of the [project] area, the Angeles National Forest is to the north and east, and the Santa Susana Mountains are to the south.” One of the documents promulgated as part of the
environmental review and approval process was the resource management plan. The boundary of the resource management plan includes the 11, 999 acre specific plan site. Also, the resource management plan area includes the 1, 517-acre Salt Creek conservation area in Ventura County. The Salt Creek conservation area adjoins the specific plan area and is southeast of the area to be developed. A component of the resource management plan is the conservation plan which we will discuss later in greater detail. The conservation plan’s boundary encompasses two other planning areas. They are the Entrada and Valencia Commerce Center Planning Areas which are located to the east and northeast of the development area respectively. Thus, the environmental planning and certification process extends beyond the development and specific plan areas.
2. Environmental documents
The department’s approval of the project is predicated on a series of interrelated documents described in the first paragraph of this opinion: the environmental impact report; the resource management plan; the conservation plan; the streambed alteration agreement; and the two incidental take permits. The documents resulted from a joint action of the project by the department and the corps as permitted by the Guidelines for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act. (Cal. Code Regs., tit. 14, § 15052.) The department is the lead agency under the California Environmental Quality Act. (Pub. Resources Code, § 21067; Guidelines, §§ 15050-15051.) The corps is the lead agency under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. § 4321 et seq.). (40 C.F.R. § 1501.5(a)(2) (2013);
see Save Our Ecosystems v. Clark (9th Cir. 1984) 747 F.2d 1240, 1249.)
b. Precertification and issuance events
As noted, the specific plan contemplated further environmental review. The initial process for preparation of the environmental impact report commenced on February 9, 2000. But the scoping process was held in abeyance pending the outcome of the Kern County litigation concerning the specific plan. The scoping process for the environmental impact report began on February 9, 2000, and ended on August 24, 2005. On July 19, 2005, the corps issued a notice of intent to prepare a draft environmental impact report. (70 Fed.Reg. 41380 (Jul. 19, 2005).) On July 25, 2005, the department issued a notice of
preparation of a draft environmental impact report. The project was described in the preparation notice as: the streambed alteration agreement; incidental take permits; and the conservation plan. The department’s July 25 draft environmental impact report preparation notice requested that any comments be sent no later than September 5, 2005. The final public scoping meeting was held on August 24, 2005. On April 27, 2009, the corps and the department released the draft environmental impact report. The 60-day public comment period concluded on June 26, 2009. The public comment period was then extended for another 60 days to August 25, 2009. On June 18, 2010, the department and the corps released the final environmental impact report. As required by federal, but not state law, an additional 45-day comment period was provided by the corps. The additional federally mandated comment period ended on August 3, 2010. The corps drafted responses to the comments. The department deferred certification until after the corps completed the additional comment period. On December 3, 2010, the department certified the environmental impact report.
c. Environmental impact report and adoption of findings
The department and the corps jointly prepared the 5, 828-page project level environmental impact report. For purposes of the California Environmental Quality Act, the project is defined as follows: “[T]his document will also function as a project-level [environmental impact report] for the proposed [resource management plan] and [conservation plan] project components. The [environmental impact report] identifies and discloses the proposed [project’s] significant environmental impacts and identifies feasible mitigation measures and project alternatives. [The department] has determined that certification of the [environmental impact report] in compliance with [the California Environmental Quality Act] is required before it may decide whether to issue the requested [streambed alteration agreement] and [incidental take permits] for the proposed [project] activities.” When finally certified, the project was defined as follows, “Newhall Ranch Resource Management and Development Plan (RMDP) and Spineflower Conservation Plan (SCP), and associated Master Streambed Alteration Agreement (No. 1600-2004-0016-RS) (MSAA) and Incidental Take Permits (ITPS) (Nos. 2081-2008-012-05 and 2081-2008-013-05).” In other words, the environmental impact report relates to general planning and conservation steps resulting from the county’s specific plan. Depending on economic conditions and the like, it is anticipated that within the specific plan area there will be several residential and commercial developments. The environmental impact report does not authorize any specific future construction and the like apart from that discussed in the resource management plan. Rather, the focus of the environmental impact report is on two steps in the pre-residential and commercial construction environmental planning--the resource management and conservation plans.
Additionally, the environmental impact report was a necessary precondition to the issuance of the streambed alteration agreement and incidental take permits. And, as noted, the streambed alteration agreement and incidental take permits are part of the resource management plan.
The environmental impact report consists of: an executive summary and introduction; a project description; an account and comparison of project alternatives and cumulative impacts including irreversible changes; consideration of growth inducing and federal impacts; an evaluation of global climate change impacts; an environmental impact analysis of alternatives and mitigation; an examination of surface water hydrology and flood control; a discussion of geomorphology and riparian resources; an evaluation of issues related to water quality; an analysis of jurisdictional waters and streams; a discussion of traffic and noise; an assessment of questions involving visual, cultural, paleontological, agricultural, water and biological resources; a description of land use, parks, recreation, trails, hazards, hazardous materials, solid waste services and public safety services related issues; and an evaluation of socioeconomics and environmental justice. Finally, the revised final version of the environmental impact report identifies the preparers and agencies consulted and references cited.
The environmental impact report analyzes the developer’s proposed project and seven alternatives. Chapter 5 of the environmental impact report details the department’s consideration of seven different alternatives. Alternative No. 1 is the so-called no-action/no project option. Alternative No. 2 is the project as proposed in the draft environmental impact report. The final environmental impact report made changes to Alternative No. 2 from that discussed in the draft version. The project consists of this final version of Alternative No. 2. The changes reduced the significant environmental impacts of the project.
d. Resource management plan
In order to comply with the county’s specific plan, the resource management plan was developed. The resource management and development plan was prepared by Dudek, a Valencia, California environmental consulting firm. (Dudek is referred to in planning documents as “Dudek” and “Dudek and Associates.” We will refer to the consultant utilizing its title in the document we are discussing.) Dated December 3, 2010, the 337-page resource management plan (some pages are blank) is described in the environmental impact report as a conservation, mitigation and permitting plan. The resource management plan will be used in the future to obtain federal and state permits. These permits will be used to implement infrastructure and other improvements required to facilitate future build-out of the county’s specific plan.
e. Conservation plan
The San Fernando Spineflower (Chorizanthe parryi ssp. Fernandina) (spineflower) is listed as an endangered species under the California Endangered Species Act (endangered species act). (Fish & G. Code, § 2050 et seq.) The 162-page December 3, 2010 conservation plan permanently expands the existing spineflower preserve system. The spineflower is identified as a candidate species under the federal Endangered Species Act of 1973. (16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.; Pub. L. No. 93-205 (Dec. 28, 1973) 87 Stat. 884.) The preserve system is designed to maximize long-term persistence of the spineflower.
f. Permitting and other actions
Also on December 3, 2010, four other actions were taken. The first action consisted of a “dredge and fill permit.” In order for the department to implement the management and development plan, it was necessary to secure a dredge and fill permit from the corps. Such a permit was mandated by title 33 United States Code section 1344(b), which is part of the Clean Water Act of 1977. (33 U.S.C. § 1251 et seq.) As part of the issuance of the dredge and fill permit, the corps and the department conducted joint environmental review. The second action consisted of the streambed alteration agreement. The developer entered into the streambed alteration agreement with the department. (Fish & G. Code, §§ 1602-1603, 1605.)
A third action consisted of the issuance of two incidental take permits. (Fish & G. Code, §§ 86, 2080, 2081, subd. (b).) One permit is for the spineflower. A separate multispecies incidental take permit was issued for the: western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis); southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus); and least Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus). The developer’s request for an incidental take permit in connection with six species not listed in the endangered species act was denied. Fourth, a Mitigation and Monitoring and Reporting Program (mitigation program) was established for the streambed alteration agreement and the two incidental take permits. The mitigation program is to be used by the department to track compliance with the mitigation requirements. (§ 21081, subd. (a)(1); Guidelines, § 15097.)
Also, on December 3, 2010, the department issued its 213-page California Environmental Quality Act factual findings and overriding considerations
statement in connection with: the streambed alteration agreement; the incidental take permits; and the conservation plan. And the department issued its 43-page factual findings as required by title 14 California Code of Regulations section 783.5, subdivision (d)(2)(B)(5) for the incidental take permits for the: spineflower; Western yellow-billed cuckoo; Southwestern willow flycatcher; and Least Bell’s vireo.
III. POST-CERTIFICATION EVENTS
On January 3, 2011, plaintiffs filed their Code of Civil Procedure sections 1085 and 1094.5 mandate petition. The mandate petition challenges the: certification of the project’s environmental impact report; conservation plan; streambed alteration agreement; and issuance of two incidental take permits. The first cause of action challenges the department’s certification of the environmental impact report. The first cause of action also alleges the environmental impact report fails to comply with statutory and regulatory requirements in 10 respects: the description of the project and the affected environment; water quality; biological resources; greenhouse gas emissions; cultural resources; air quality; traffic; punitive impacts; alternatives; and inadequate response to public comments.
The second cause of action alleges a failure to recirculate the draft environmental report requires the certification be set aside. After the draft environmental impact report was prepared, comments were submitted to the department which provided significant new information within the meaning of section 21092.1 and Guidelines section 15088.5. The comments described project impacts relating to biological and cultural resources and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the development of significant new information on the severity of the project impacts, the department failed to recirculate any portion of the draft environmental impact report. As a result, the petition alleges the failure to recirculate the draft environmental impact report is not supported by substantial evidence and its approval must be set aside.
The third cause of action challenges the spineflower and multi-species incidental take permits. According to plaintiffs, the department’s determinations concerning the spineflower and multi-species incidental take permits are not based upon the best reasonably available scientific and other information. The mandate petition alleges the issuance of the incidental take permits was an abrogation of the department’s affirmative duty to protect public trust resources.
The fourth cause of action, filed pursuant to Code of Civil Procedure section 1085, alleges the department’s findings are not supported by substantial evidence. The defective findings are required by applicable environmental
laws including the endangered species and California Environmental Quality Acts. According to the mandate petition, substantial evidence did not support the department’s findings in connection with: significant environmental impacts; the overriding considerations statement; feasible alternatives or mitigation measures; whether environmentally superior alternatives were infeasible due to costs; the damage done to the spineflower species; the continued existence and take of other species including the Southwestern willow flycatcher, the Least Bell’s Vireo and the western yellow-billed Cuckoo; and the incidental take permits.
The fifth cause of action challenges the issuance of the streambed alteration agreement. No issue has been raised on appeal concerning the propriety of the streambed alteration agreement. The sixth cause of action alleges a violation of Fish and Game Code section 5515. Fish and Game Code section 5515 provides, except in limited exceptions, that “fully protected fish or parts thereof” may not be taken or possessed under any circumstances. The department’s project authorization will result in the prohibited take of the Unarmored Threespine Stickleback (stickleback). This would result from: the direct destruction of its habitat; localized alterations in streamflow; other hydrological and fluvial geomorphological changes; and facilitation of hybridization of other stickleback species that could result in the extinction of the native population.
On September 20, 2012, the hearing was held on plaintiff’s mandate petition. At the conclusion of the hearing, the trial court issued its tentative statement of decision. We need not detail the contents of the tentative statement of decision. The trial court’s final statement of decision materially modified the September 20, 2012 document. On October 11, 2012, the department and the developer filed objections to the tentative statement of decision.
On October 15, 2012, the trial court’s final statement of decision was filed. In its final statement of decision, the trial court ruled that the department abused its discretion in six aspects: First, the trial court ruled that the environmental impact report failed to adequately discuss the impact of dissolved copper discharged from the project area on steelhead smolt. The trial court ruled, “The [environmental impact report] fails to consider... whether the dissolved copper discharged from the [p]roject [a]rea... would adversely affect restored habitat for endangered steelhead smolt.” Second, the trial court ruled the department’s analysis of the spineflower mitigation measures was legally impermissible. And, in a related vein, the trial court ruled there was no substantial evidence the mitigation matters were adequate. Third, the trial court ruled the environmental impact report’s selection of a baseline for assessing the cumulative impacts of the project’s greenhouse gas
emissions was, as a matter of law, inappropriate. In addition, the trial court ruled that certain aspects of the department’s baseline analysis in the environmental impact report were not supported by substantial evidence. Fourth, the trial court ruled that the environmental impact report’s assessment of the project’s impact on Native-American cultural resources was not supported by substantial evidence. Fifth, the trial court ruled the department failed to prevent the taking of the stickleback, a fully protected fish under Fish and Game Code section 5515, subdivision (a)(1). Sixth, the trial court ruled the department unduly relied upon the specific plan and failed to conduct an independent review of project impacts. The trial court rejected all of plaintiffs’ other numerous contentions.
On October 15, 2012, judgment was entered in plaintiffs’ favor. The judgment ordered the department to set aside the approvals of the: resource management plan; conservation plan; incidental take permits; and streambed alteration agreement. Further, the department was ordered to set aside its certification of the final environment impact report. Finally, the department was ordered to set aside its findings, overriding interests statement and mitigation program. As noted, the findings, overriding interests statement and mitigation program related to the: resource management plan; spineflower conservation plan; incidental take permits; and streambed alteration agreement. Further, pursuant to section 21168.9, subdivision (a)(2), the department and the developer are enjoined from implementing any of the activities specified in the: resource development and spineflower conservation plans; incidental take permits; and streambed alteration agreement. The injunction expires once the department certifies an environmental impact report that complies with the deficiencies indentified in the statement of decision. The peremptory writ of mandate, filed on October 15, 2012, paralleled the requirements imposed by the judgment.
On November 13, 2012, the developer filed its notice of appeal. On November 20, 2012, the department filed its notice of appeal. On November 21, 2012, the department filed an amended notice of appeal. All appeals have been considered together.
A. Standards Of Review For Environmental Impact Report Issues
An environmental impact report’s fundamental purpose is to inform public officials and the people they serve of any significant adverse effects a project is likely to have on the environment. (§ 21061; Neighbors for Smart Rail v. Exposition Metro Line Const. Authority (2013) 57 Cal.4th 439, 447;
[160 Cal.Rptr.3d 1, 304 P.3d 499];
Vineyard Area Citizens for Responsible Growth, Inc. v. City of Rancho Cordova (2007) 40 Cal.4th 412, 428 [53 Cal.Rptr.3d 821, 150 P.3d 709].) Reviewing courts presume the correctness of an agency’s decisions in the environmental impact report context. (San Diego Citizenry Group v. County of San Diego (2013) 219 Cal.App.4th 1, 11 [161 Cal.Rptr.3d 447]; State Water Resources Control Board Cases (2006) 136 Cal.App.4th 674, 723 [39 Cal.Rptr.3d 189].) Our Supreme Court has described the limited nature of judicial review: “In reviewing agency actions under [the California Environmental Quality Act], ... section 21168.5 provides that a court’s inquiry ‘shall extend only to whether there was a prejudicial abuse of discretion. Abuse of discretion is established if the agency has not proceeded in a manner required by law or if the determination or decision is not supported by substantial evidence.’” (Citizens of Goleta Valley v. Board of Supervisors (1990) 52 Cal.3d 553, 564 [276 Cal.Rptr. 410, 801 P.2d 1161];
see Mount Shasta Bioregional Ecology Center v. County of Siskiyou (2012) 210 Cal.App.4th 184, 195 [148 Cal.Rptr.3d 195].)
Thus, our standard of review depends upon the nature of the challenge to an environmental impact report. Our Supreme Court explained this dichotomy: “In evaluating an [environmental impact report] for [California Environmental Quality Act] compliance, then, a reviewing court must adjust its scrutiny to the nature of the alleged defect, depending on whether the claim is predominantly one of improper procedure or a dispute over the facts. For example, where an agency failed to require an applicant to provide certain information mandated by [the California Environmental Quality Act] and to include that information in its environmental analysis, we held the agency ‘failed to proceed in the manner prescribed by [the California Environmental Quality Act].’ (Sierra Club v. State Bd. of Forestry (1994) 7 Cal.4th 1215, 1236 [32 Cal.Rptr.2d 19, 876 P.2d 505];
see also Santiago County Water Dist. v. County of Orange [(1981)] 118 Cal.App.3d , 829 [173 Cal.Rptr. 602] [[environmental impact report] legally inadequate because of lack of water supply and facilities analysis].) In contrast, in a factual dispute over ‘whether adverse effects have been mitigated or could be better mitigated’ (Laurel Heights[ Improvement Assn. v. Regents of University of California (1988)] 47 Cal.3d [376,] 393 [253 Cal.Rptr. 426, 764 P.2d 278]), the agency’s conclusion would be reviewed only for substantial evidence.” (Vineyard Area Citizens for Responsible Growth, Inc. v. City of Rancho Cordova, supra, 40 Cal.4th at p. 435.)
In terms of the correctness of the department’s environmental conclusions, our Supreme Court has explained: “Thus, the reviewing court ‘“does not pass upon the correctness of the [environmental impact report’s] environmental conclusions, but only upon its sufficiency as an informative document.”’ [Citations.] We may not set aside an agency’s approval of an [environmental impact report] on the ground that an opposite conclusion would have been
equally or more reasonable.” (Citizens of Goleta Valley v. Board of Supervisors, supra, 52 Cal.3d at p. 564, quoting Laurel Heights Improvement Assn. v. Regents of University of California, supra,
47 Cal.3d at p. 392 see County of Inyo v. City of Los Angeles (1977) 71 Cal.App.3d 185, 189 [139 Cal.Rptr. 396].) Thus, we defer to an agency’s resolution of conflicting opinions and evidence. (Western States Petroleum Assn. v. Superior Court (1995) 9 Cal.4th 559, 572 [38 Cal.Rptr.2d 139, 888 P.2d 1268]; accord Environmental Council of Sacramento v. City of Sacramento (2006) 142 Cal.App.4th 1018, 1042 [48 Cal.Rptr.3d 544].) Virtually every contention (with exceptions we shall discuss) posited by plaintiffs contravene the foregoing standard of review for an environmental conclusion. With little exception, plaintiffs’ analysis requires reweighing of conflicting opinions and evidence.
Our standard of review is the same as that of the trial court. We do not review the trial court’s decision; rather, we examine the department’s adherence to the law and environmental conclusions as specified above. (Vineyard Area Citizens for Responsible Growth, Inc. v. City of Rancho Cordova, supra, 40 Cal.4th at pp. 426-427; Melom v. City of Madera (2010) 183 Cal.App.4th 41, 47-48 [106 Cal.Rptr.3d 755].) We will refer to the trial court’s analysis because it serves as the basis for much of the parties’ analysis. However, with one exception (the admissibility of a post-environmental impact statement certification document), we are not reviewing the trial court’s decision but the agency’s determinations.
B. Stickleback Take Issues And The Endangered Species Act
The stickleback’s presence in the resource management plan’s area was described in a report prepared by Entrix, Inc., one of the developer’s environmental consultants. The Entrix, Inc. “Special Status Aquatic Species Habitat Assessment for the Santa Clara River” describes the stickleback presence in the resource management plan area in part thusly: “Populations of [stickleback] are restricted to three sections of the upper Santa Clara River including the Newhall Ranch reach, which represents the downstream demarcation of the [stickleback] species.... The [stickleback] is a small, largely annual fish that requires shallow, slow, marginal stream flows with abundant aquatic vegetation for cover. The male guards territories and builds a small nest of decaying vegetation where he guards the eggs until they hatch. Large numbers of stickleback can exist in the summer and fall with the long breeding season in southern California, and breeding can be almost all year in dry years when a stream is minimally disrupted by storm flows. Under
optimum conditions, up to a few hundred stickleback can exist within approximately  meters of stream. Strong storm flows can severely reduced localized populations until the streams stabilize in spring and the numbers can build up again. Backwater habitats within the Santa Clara River are utilized by [stickleback] as refugia during storm events.” According to an Entrix, Inc. study, in the resource management plan area, the stickleback is abundant. The stickleback’s population is dependent on interannual hydrological conditions which includes the frequency and intensity of flood events.
Dr. Camm Swift, a biologist whose qualifications we will relate shortly, reported that in occasional dry years when no peak storms occur, reproduction occurs virtually year-round. But generally, the greatest numbers of stickleback are present from around mid-summer to late fall. This occurs because reproduction has increased the number of juvenile as well as adult stickleback. These large numbers are usually decimated by peak storm flows generally beginning in late November. In other words, in normal or heavy rainfall years, the stickleback population is typically at its nadir in late fall and winter.
A United States Forest and Wildlife Service (federal wildlife service) summary describes the stickleback as a small scale freshwater fish inhabiting slow-moving reaches or quiet-water micro-habitats of streams and rivers. The stickleback primarily feed on insects, small crustaceans and snails. To a lesser degree, the stickleback feed on nematodes, flatworms and terrestrial insects.
2. Development related activities
The resource management plan contemplates bridge, road and other construction as a precursor to future development: “The [resource management plan] consists of development-related infrastructure improvements in or adjacent to the Santa Clara River and tributaries located in the [resource management plan] area to implement the County-approved Specific Plan. The [resource management plan] infrastructure components are comprised of bridges/road crossing culverts, bank stabilization, drainage facilities, water quality control facilities, tributary drainage modification and conversion, utility corridor and crossings, temporary haul routes for grading equipment, the discharge outfall of the previously-approved Newhall Ranch Water Reclamation Plant, roadway improvements to [State Route]-126, and recreation facilities.” The resource management plan contemplates that two bridges will be constructed.
3. Mandatory mitigation requirements designed to insure no stickleback take occurs
We turn now to the mitigation measures imposed on the developer. The mitigation measures are attached to the department’s factual findings of fact and are discussed in the environmental impact report. The mitigation measures relate to the biological resources discussion in the environmental impact report. Therefore, the mitigation measures are identified by the letters “BIO” followed by a number. We describe them in great detail.
BIO-43 sets forth requirements for preconstruction surveys by qualified biologists: “Prior to initiating construction for the installation of bridges, storm drain outlets, utility lines, bank protection, trails, and/or other construction activities that result in any disturbance to the banks or wetted channel, aquatic habitats within construction sites and access roads, as well as all aquatic habitats within 300 feet of construction sites and access roads, shall be surveyed by a qualified biologist for the presence of... stickleback.... The [c]orps and [the department] shall be notified at least 14 days prior to the survey and shall have the option of attending. The biologist shall file a written report of the survey with both agencies within 14 days of the survey and no later than 10 days prior to any construction work in the riverbed. If there is evidence that fish spawn has occurred in the survey area, then surveys shall cease unless otherwise authorized by [the federal wildlife service]. If surveys determine that gravid fish are present, that spawning has recently occurred, or that juvenile fish are present in the proposed construction areas, all activities within aquatic habitat will be suspended. Construction within aquatic habitats shall only occur when it is determined that juvenile fish are not present within the [project] area.” In addition, BIO-43 imposes mitigation measure monitoring requirements. The fish surveys must be completed prior to construction and documented in a written report. The department must be notified at least 14 days prior to the survey. The survey report is to be filed with the department within 14 days of the survey. At the latest, the biologist’s report must be delivered to the department no sooner than 10 days prior to construction.
BIO-44 requires the developer to prepare a “Stream Crossing and Diversion Plan” to protect stickleback during construction. BIO-44 imposes the following requirements: “Temporary bridges, culvert crossings, or other feasible methods of providing access across the river shall be constructed outside of the winter season and not during periods when spawning is occurring. Prior to the construction of any temporary or permanent crossing of the Santa Clara River, the applicant shall develop a Stream Crossing and Diversion Plan. The plan shall include the following elements: the timing and methods for pre-construction aquatic species surveys; a detailed description
of the diversion methods (e.g., berms shall be constructed of on-site alluvium materials of low silt content, inflatable dams, sand bags, or other approved materials); special-status species relocation; fish exclusion techniques, including the use of block netting and fish relocation; methods to maintain fish passage during construction; channel habitat enhancement, including the placement of vegetation, rocks, and boulders to produce riffle habitat; fish stranding surveys; and techniques for the removal of crossings prior to winter storm flows. The Plan shall be submitted to the [federal wildlife service] and [the department] for approval at least 30 days prior to implementation.”
BIO-44 further requires that if stickleback are present and spawning has not occurred, they are to be relocated prior to streambed diversion or any crossing of the stream. To prevent stickleback from entering construction areas, block nets of 1/8 inch “woven mesh” are to be set up both up and down stream. In terms of high temperature or low humidity conditions, BIO-44 imposes additional requirements. “On days with possible high temperature or low humidity (temperatures in excess of 80 [degrees] F), work will be done in the early morning hours, as soon as sufficient light is available, to avoid exposing fishes to high temperatures and/or low humidity. If high temperatures are present, the fishes will be herded to downstream areas past the block net. Once the fishes have been excluded by herding, a [federal wildlife service] staff member or his or her agents shall inspect the site for remaining or stranded fish. A [federal wildlife service] staff member or his or her agents shall relocate the fish to suitable habitat outside the [project] area (including those areas potentially subject to high turbidity). During the diversion/relocation of fishes, the [federal wildlife service] or his or her agents shall be present at all times.”
BIO-44, as in the case of other mitigation measures, is subject to specified monitoring requirements. The Stream Crossing and Diversion Plan must be prepared and submitted to the federal wildlife service and the department. Any follow-up procedures are to be conducted prior to the commencement of construction. The crossing and diversion plan must be submitted to the department at least 30 days prior to implementation.
BIO-45, the lengthiest and most comprehensive of the mitigation measures, identifies standards for stream diversion bypass channels. The diversion bypass channels are to be constructed in compliance with BIO-44. BIO-45 states: “The diversion channel shall be of a width and depth comparable to the natural river channel.... [T]he bypass channel will be constructed prior to diverting the stream, beginning in the downstream area and continuing in the upstream direction. Where feasible and in consultation with [the department/federal wildlife service], the configuration of the diversion channel will be curved (sinuous) with multiple sets of obstructions (i.e., boulders,
large logs, or other [department/federal wildlife service]-approved materials) placed in the channel at the point of each curve (i.e., on alternating sides of the channel.) If emergent aquatic vegetation is present in the original channel, the applicant will transplant suitable vegetation into the diversion channel and on the banks prior to or at the time of the water diversion. A qualified restoration ecologist will supervise the construction of the diversion channels on site. The integrity of the channel and diversion shall be maintained throughout the intended diversion period. Channel bank or barrier construction shall be adequate to prevent seepage into or from the work area.” No construction of diversion channels is to commence if surveys indicate that: gravid fish are present; spawning has recently occurred; or juvenile fish are present in the construction areas.
Once the need for diversion has concluded, either at the commencement of winter or completion of construction, BIO-45 imposes additional requirements on the developer. Under those circumstances, the developer is required to coordinate with the department and the federal wildlife service to determine if the diversion should be left in place. In the alternative, the developer, the department and the federal wildlife service may conclude that the original stream course should be reinstated. If the original stream course is to be reinstated, BIO-45 requires the following: “If [the department/federal wildlife service] determine the stream should be diverted to the original channel, the original channel will be modified prior to re-diversion (i.e., while dry) to construct curves (sinuosity) into that channel, including the placement of obstructions (i.e., boulders, large logs, or other [department/federal wildlife service]-approved materials). The original channel will be replanted with emergent vegetation as the diversion channel was planted.”
BIO-45 also imposes dewatering requirements. Many of the dewatering requirements do not relate to the stickleback or other fish. However, in terms of fish, which includes the stickleback, BIO-45 states: “Fish shall be excluded from any artificial flowing channels from dewatering discharge. Methods to ensure separation may include, but are not limited to: block netting at the confluence; creation of a physical drop greater than four inches at the confluence; or maintaining a velocity range unsuitable for fish passage, such as a berm at the confluence with small diameter pipes for discharge.”
All dewatering and diversion activities are to fully comply with BIO-45 throughout the entire construction period. All diversion channels are to be approved by the department and the federal wildlife service prior to construction. In addition, all proposed channels that are to be in existence at the conclusion of construction activities are subject to approval by the department and the federal wildlife service. BIO-45 contains monitoring requirements. Field monitoring is to be conducted daily by a qualified restoration ecologist.
And the developer is required to submit reports annually by April 1 to the department until all success criteria have been met.
BIO-46 imposes requirements for a biologist to be present during any stream diversion or culvert installation activity. BIO-46 states: “During any stream diversion or culvert installation activity, a qualified biologist(s) shall be present and shall patrol the areas within, upstream and downstream of the work area. The biologists shall inspect the diversion and inspect for stranded fish or other aquatic organisms. Under no circumstances shall the... stickleback be collected or relocated, unless [federal wildlife service] personnel or their agents implement this measure. Any event involving stranded fish shall be recorded and reported to [the department] and [the federal wildlife service] within 24 hours.” BIO-46 contains its own ...