We grant Hong Yen Chang posthumous admission as an
attorney and counselor at law in all courts of the State of California.
Hong Yen Chang, a native of China, came to this country in 1872 as part of an educational program to teach Chinese youth about the West. (Farkas, Bury My Bones in America (1998) p. 87 (Farkas).) Chang graduated from the Philips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1879 and earned his undergraduate degree at Yale University. ( Id. at pp. 87, 89, 93.) He went on to graduate from Columbia Law School in 1886. ( Id. at p. 90.) He applied for admission to the New York Bar, but despite a " high marking" and unanimous recommendation from the bar examiners, he was turned down by the state supreme court in 1887 because he was not a citizen. ( In and About the City: Naturalizing a Chinaman. Hong Yen Chang's Struggles to be Admitted to the Bar, N.Y. Times (Nov. 19, 1887) p. 8.) That same year, a New [185 Cal.Rptr.3d 2] York judge issued Chang a certificate of naturalization. ( Ibid. ) After the New York Legislature passed a law allowing him to reapply for bar admission, Chang was admitted in 1888, becoming " the only regularly admitted Chinese lawyer in this country." ( A Chinese Lawyer: Hong Yen Chang and a Colored Student Admitted to the Bar, N.Y. Times (May 18, 1888) p. 1.)
Chang then relocated to California, " where he planned to serve the large Chinese community of San Francisco." (Farkas, supra, at p. 90.) When he moved for admission to the California bar, this court observed that his motion was " made in due form" and " his [344 P.3d 289] moral character duly vouched for." ( In re Hong Yen Chang (1890) 84 Cal. 163, 164 [24 P. 156].) At the time, however, a California statute provided that only United States citizens or persons " who have bona fide declared their intention to become such in the manner provided by law" could gain admission upon presentation of a license to practice law from another state. ( Id. at p. 165, citing Code Civ. Proc., former
§ 279, enacted in 1872 and repealed by Stats. 1931, ch. 861, § 2, p. 1762.) This court held that the statute " requires that they shall be persons eligible to become [citizens], as well as to have declared their intention." ( In re Hong Yen Chang, at p. 165.) Observing that " courts are expressly forbidden to issue certificates of naturalization to any native of China" under the federal Chinese Exclusion Act (Act of May 6, 1882, 47th Cong., ch. 126, § 14, 22 Stat. 58, 61), we determined that the certificate of naturalization Chang had obtained in New York " was issued without authority of law, and is void, it being conceded that the holder of it is a person of Mongolian nativity." ( In re Hong Yen Chang, at pp. 164-165.) The court concluded: " Holding, as we do, that the applicant is not a citizen of the United States, and is not eligible under the law to become such, the motion must be denied." ( Id. at p. 165.)
Understanding the significance of our two-page decision denying Chang admission to the bar requires a candid reckoning with a sordid chapter of our state and national history. (See McClain, In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America (1994) (McClain); Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1989) pp. 79-131.) The general outline of this history is recounted in The Chinese Exclusion Case (1889) 130 U.S. 581 [32 L.Ed. 1068, 9 S.Ct. 623] ( Chae Chan Ping ), which upheld the Chinese Exclusion Act against various legal challenges one year before our decision in In re Hong Yen Chang. Reflecting then prevalent sensibilities, a unanimous high court said:
" The discovery of gold in California in 1848, as is well known, was followed by a large immigration thither from all parts of the world, attracted not only by the hope of gain from the mines, but from the great prices paid for all kinds of labor. The news of the discovery penetrated China, and laborers came from there in great numbers, a few with their own means, but by far the greater number under contract with employers, for whose benefit they worked. These laborers readily secured employment, and, as domestic servants, and in various kinds of out-door work, proved to be exceedingly useful. For some years little opposition was made to them except when they sought to work in the mines, but, as their numbers increased, they began to engage in various mechanical pursuits and trades, and thus came in competition with our artisans and mechanics, as well as our laborers in the field. [¶ ] The competition steadily increased as the laborers came in crowds on each steamer that arrived from China, or Hong Kong, an [185 Cal.Rptr.3d 3] adjacent English port. They were generally industrious and frugal. Not being accompanied by families, except in rare instances, their expenses were small; and they were content with the simplest fare, such as would not suffice for our laborers and artisans. The competition between them and our people was for this reason altogether in their favor, and the consequent irritation, proportionately deep and bitter, was followed, in many cases, by open conflicts, to the great disturbance of the public peace.
" The differences of race added greatly to the difficulties of the situation. ... [T]hey remained strangers in the land, residing apart by themselves, and adhering to the customs and usages of their own country. It seemed impossible for them to assimilate with our people, or to make any change in their habits or modes of living. As they grew in numbers each year the people of the coast saw, or believed they saw, in the facility of immigration, and in the crowded millions of China, where population presses upon the means of subsistence, great danger that at no distant day that portion of our country would be overrun by them unless prompt action was taken to restrict their immigration. The people there accordingly petitioned earnestly for protective legislation." ( Chae Chan Ping, supra, 130 U.S. at pp. 594-595.)
[344 P.3d 290] Hostility toward Chinese labor, together with cultural tensions and xenophobia, prompted the California Legislature to enact a raft of laws designed to disadvantage Chinese immigrants. (See, e.g., Stats. 1880, ch. 116, § 1, p. 123 [establishing commercial fishing ban for " aliens incapable of becoming electors of this State" ]; Pen. Code, former § § 178, 179, added by Code Amends. 1880, ch. 3, § § 1, 2, pp. 1, 2 [imposing criminal liability on corporations that employed Chinese workers]; Stats. 1862, ch. 339, § 1, p. 462 [creating " the Chinese Police Tax" in order " to protect Free White Labor against competition with Chinese Coolie Labor, and to discourage the Immigration of the Chinese into the State of California" (italics omitted)]; Stats. 1855, ch. 174, § 1, p. 216 [imposing license tax on each foreigner who was " ineligible to become a citizen" ].) Many of the era's discriminatory laws and government actions were upheld by this court. (See, e.g., Mott v. Cline (1927) 200 Cal. 434 [253 P. 718]; In re Yick Wo (1885) 68 Cal. 294 [9 P. 139], revd. sub nom. Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886) 118 U.S. 356 [30 L.Ed. 220, 6 S.Ct. 1064]; Ex parte Ah Fook (1874) 49 Cal. 402, revd. sub nom. Chy Lung v. Freeman (1875) 92 U.S. 275 [23 L.Ed. 550]; People v. Brady (1870) 40 Cal. 198; People v. Hall (1854) 4 Cal. 399, 404-405; People v. Naglee (1850) 1 Cal. 232.)
Anti-Chinese sentiment was a major impetus for the California Constitutional Convention of 1879. (See McClain, supra, at pp. 79-81 [describing the influence of the California's Workingmen's Party led by Dennis Kearney, whose slogan was " The Chinese Must Go!" ].) As ratified by the electorate in 1879, the California Constitution denied the right to vote to any " native of China" alongside any " idiot, insane person, or person convicted" of various crimes. (Cal. Const., former art. II, § 1, as ratified May, 7, 1879.) It also included an entire article titled " Chinese," directing the Legislature to enact laws to combat " the burdens and evils" posed by Chinese immigrants, including laws " to impose conditions upon which persons may reside in the State, and to provide the means and mode of their removal from the State." ( Id., ...