LEZMOND C. MITCHELL, Petitioner-Appellant,
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondent-Appellee
Resubmitted, Pasadena, California April 21, 2015.
Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Arizona Mary H. Murguia, Circuit Judge, Presiding[*] D.C. No. 3:09-cv-08089-MHM. Argued and Submitted February 20, 2014. Submission Vacated February 27, 2014.
Habeas Corpus/Death Penalty
The panel affirmed the district court's denial of federal prisoner Lezmond Mitchell's 28 U.S.C. § 2255 motion challenging his convictions under the Major Crimes Act for multiple offenses committed on the Navajo reservation including two counts of first-degree murder and multiple counts of robbery, and his conviction and death sentence under the Federal Death Penalty Act of 1994 for carjacking resulting in death.
The § 2255 motion claimed that counsel was ineffective (1) at the guilt phase of the trial in failing to assert an intoxication defense, and (2) at the penalty phase for inadequately investigating, and for choosing not to present evidence of, Mitchell's mental health, history of substance abuse, and troubled upbringing.
The panel agreed with the district court that counsel did not fall below professional standards in either their investigation of a possible intoxication defense or their decision to pursue a different defense strategy of trying to portray Mitchell's accomplice as the main malefactor.
With respect to the penalty phase of the case, the panel also agreed with the district court that Mitchell's legal team made a more-than-adequate investigation of possible mitigation, including his mental health and social history.
Dissenting in part, Judge Reinhardt would grant relief with respect to the penalty phase because Mitchell was deprived of his Sixth Amendment right to effective counsel. He wrote that counsel's " good guy" defense was unreasonable in light of the facts and circumstances of the crimes Mitchell committed, and also because the minimal investigation underlying counsel's choice of strategy was constitutionally deficient.
Jonathan Aminoff and Gia Kim (argued), Deputy Federal Public Defenders, Los Angeles, California for Petitioner-Appellant.
John S. Leonardo, United States Attorney, Christina Cabanillas, Appellate Chief, and Vincent Q. Kirby (argued), Assistant United States Attorney, Phoenix, Arizona for Respondent-Appellee.
Before: Stephen Reinhardt, Barry G. Silverman, and Kim McLane Wardlaw, Circuit Judges. Opinion by Judge Silverman; Partial Dissent by Judge Reinhardt.
SILVERMAN, Circuit Judge:
Defendant Lezmond Mitchell, then 20 years old, plotted with three others to carjack a vehicle for use in an armed robbery of a trading post located on the Navajo reservation in Arizona. On October 28, 2001, Mitchell and his 16-year-old accomplice, Johnny Orsinger, abducted 63-year-old Alyce Slim and her nine-year old granddaughter. Slim and the child were traveling to New Mexico in Slim's GMC pickup truck. Somewhere near Sawmill, Arizona, Mitchell and Orsinger killed Slim by stabbing her 33 times. Her dead body was pulled into the rear of the truck, where the child was made to sit beside it. Mitchell then drove the truck into the nearby mountains.
Thirty or forty miles later, Slim's body was dragged out of the truck. Mitchell told the little girl to get out and " lay down and die." Mitchell then cut her throat twice. When she did not die, Mitchell and Orsinger each dropped large rocks on her head. Twenty-pound rocks bearing the child's blood were later found at the scene.
Mitchell and Orsinger left the murder scene, but later returned to hide evidence. While Mitchell dug a hole in the ground, Orsinger severed the heads and hands of both victims in an effort to prevent their identification. The dismembered parts were buried in the hole; the torsos were pulled into the woods. Mitchell and Orsinger later burned the victims' clothing and other personal effects. Mitchell washed the knives with alcohol to remove any blood.
Three days later, on October 31, 2001, Mitchell and two accomplices (Jason Kinlicheenie and Jakegory Nakai) drove to the Red Rock Trading Post in the GMC pickup truck stolen from Slim. The three men wore masks when they entered the store. Mitchell carried a 12-gauge shotgun. Nakai had a .22 caliber rifle. One of the gunmen struck the store manager in the head with his gun. When another employee said that she did not know the combination to the safe, one of the robbers said, " If you lie to me or you don't cooperate with us, we are going to kill you." Ultimately, the robbers made off with $5,530 from the safe and cash registers, and the store manager's purse.
The robbers drove the stolen GMC pickup truck back to Kinlicheenie's car. Kinlicheenie followed Mitchell in the truck to an area near Wheatfield, Arizona, where Mitchell set the truck on fire with kerosene stolen from the trading post. They then went to Jakegory and Gregory Nakai's house and split up the money.
Mitchell was convicted in federal court of eleven counts in all, including two counts of first-degree murder, carjacking resulting in death, and multiple counts of robbery. The two murders were not punishable by death because they were committed on the Navajo reservation. Federal jurisdiction over those counts is based on the Major Crimes Act, 18 U.S.C. § 1153, and the Navajo Nation did not " opt in" to the death penalty under the Federal Death Penalty Act of 1994, 18 U.S.C. § 3591. However, federal jurisdiction over carjacking resulting in death does not derive from the Major Crimes Act; the federal nexus is interstate commerce. It does not matter that the crime occurred in Indian country, and therefore, the opt-in provision of the Federal Death Penalty Act does not apply. In other words, carjacking resulting in death carries
the death penalty regardless of where it was committed. See William C. Canby, Jr., American Indian Law in a Nutshell 185-87 (6th ed. 2015).
Mitchell was sentenced to life imprisonment for the two murder counts, long consecutive prison sentences for the robbery and related counts, and death for carjacking resulting in death. His convictions and sentences were upheld on direct appeal. United States v. Mitchell, 502 F.3d 931 (9th Cir. 2007). The United States Supreme Court denied a petition for a writ of certiorari. Mitchell v. United States, 553 U.S. 1094, 128 S.Ct. 2902, 171 L.Ed.2d 843 (2008).
Which brings us to the subject of this appeal. After exhausting his direct appeal, Mitchell brought a motion under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 alleging that his team of defense lawyers rendered ineffective assistance of counsel. The team was made up of two veteran deputy federal public defenders and a private lawyer highly experienced in capital cases appointed as " learned counsel." The § 2255 motion raised various issues, but it boiled down to these claims: (1) Counsel was ineffective in failing to assert an intoxication defense at the guilt phase of the trial; and (2) Counsel was ineffective at the penalty phase for inadequately investigating, and for choosing not to present evidence of, Mitchell's mental health, history of substance abuse, and troubled upbringing. The trial court denied the motion in a lengthy and thorough written order.
We agree with the district court that counsel did not fall below professional standards in either their investigation of a possible intoxication defense or their decision to pursue a different defense strategy. They did indeed investigate whether Mitchell was intoxicated at the time of the offenses. Mitchell adamantly denied to them that he was. Even so, they looked for evidence to contradict their client, such as liquor bottles left at the crime scene, but they couldn't find any. The only other living witness to the murders of Slim and her granddaughter was Johnny Orsinger, and he wasn't talking; he was under indictment himself and invoked his privilege against self-incrimination. Even assuming for the sake of argument that there was some evidence of alcohol involvement, the planning and premeditation of the vehicle theft as preparation for the pre-planned trading post robbery are inconsistent with a claim that Mitchell was too drunk to know what he was doing. And after Mitchell was apprehended, he led authorities to the desolate crime scene, further evidence that he was not so intoxicated that he could not accurately recall events or appreciate where he was and what he was doing.
We agree with the district court that counsel conducted an adequate investigation and then made a reasonable strategic decision that it would be self-defeating to try to sell a jury on an intoxication defense on these facts, and that, instead, they would be better off trying to portray Orsinger as the main malefactor. Strategic decisions such as these are entitled to deference and do not support a claim of ineffective assistance.
With respect to the penalty phase of the case, we also agree with the district court that Mitchell's legal team made a more-than-adequate investigation of possible mitigation, including his mental health and social history. Early in the case, defense counsel had Mitchell examined by a psychologist, Susan Parrish, Ph.D. Dr. Parrish diagnosed Mitchell with antisocial personality disorder and cautioned counsel against calling her as a witness. Mitchell's lawyers also had him examined by a team of doctors led by psychiatrist Barry Morenz, M.D., at the University of Arizona medical school Mitchell also was examined
by neuropsychologist Anne Henning, Ph.D., and by neurologist Ronnie Bergen, M.D. Mitchell underwent brain imaging read by James Guay, M.D. and an EEG read by Colin Bamford, M.D. He also had lab work done. Dr. Morenz then produced a 19-page, single-spaced report, in which he diagnosed Mitchell with, among other things, depressive disorder, cognitive disorder, polysubstance abuse, history of head injuries, and antisocial personality disorder. He also noted a " mild deficit" in executive functioning likely due to emotional factors, not brain trauma. No further testing or consultation was suggested.
Mitchell's lawyers also hired an experienced " mitigation specialist," Vera Ockenfels, who produced a 42-page, single-spaced " social history" of Mitchell's life. The report is thorough in the extreme, containing sections with titles like " Conception, Pregnancy and Birth," and recounts not only Mitchell's life story and social history, but that of his parents and grandparents as well.
Only after reviewing all of this data, making numerous trips to the reservation, conducting many interviews themselves, and visiting with Mitchell himself, did defense counsel choose their mitigation strategy: Forego presenting evidence of Mitchell's drug use, mental health, and physical abuse and instead make the case that Mitchell had redeeming qualities that made his life worth saving, notwithstanding a rough start in life. Counsel presented evidence that Mitchell was unloved and rejected by his mother, struggled with his mixed Navajo and Anglo heritage, and felt caught between two different cultures. Despite these obstacles, Mitchell showed highly positive qualities. He was a good student, a speaker at his high school graduation, and a good athlete, liked by his teachers, and loved by others. In all, the defense presented nine witnesses in the penalty phase of the trial.
The defense also presented evidence that Mitchell had never before been convicted of a crime, that this offense was an aberrant act for him, and that Orsinger was the instigator and actual killer. Defense counsel also showed that the death penalty for Mitchell would create a terrible sentencing disparity. Besides this crime, Orsinger and Gregory Nakai had killed two other individuals during an earlier carjacking. Orsinger had pistol whipped the victims and shot one victim in the head. Nakai had shot the other victim five times. Yet, neither Nakai nor Orsinger, who was a juvenile, would face the death penalty.
In addition, counsel presented evidence that the death penalty offends Navajo values, and the Navajo Nation did not want the United States Attorney to seek the death penalty in this case.
Mitchell's lawyers had to walk a very careful line to avoid opening the door to highly damaging evidence contained in the medical report, such as Mitchell's diagnosis as a sociopath, his history of swinging dogs and cats by their tails and then throwing them off of bridges just for fun, and his having told Dr. Morenz that he and his accomplice had to kill the little girl to avoid being caught.
We agree with the district court that Mitchell's defense team conducted a professional-caliber investigation and then, facing unenviable choices, made a reasonable strategic decision to defend the penalty phase of the trial the way it did. Strategic decisions such as this do not support a claim of ineffective assistance of counsel. Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 690, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984); Mickey v. Ayers, 606 F.3d 1223, 1238-39 (9th Cir. 2010).
I. The Record.
The facts of the crimes are summarized above and set forth in greater detail in the opinion in the direct appeal, United States v. Mitchell, supra.
The facts bearing on Mitchell's present claims of ineffective assistance of counsel were submitted to the district court in numerous declarations, other documents, and in the lengthy depositions of Mitchell's three trial lawyers taken by Mitchell's habeas counsel. The material facts -- that is, what Mitchell's lawyers did, what they didn't do, and why -- are not disputed. What is disputed is whether counsels' investigation and strategic decisions were reasonable as a matter of law. In the analysis that follows, we examine whether counsels' investigation and strategy fell below an objective standard of reasonableness. Strickland, 466 U.S. at 687-88. Because the material facts are not in dispute -- they either entitle Mitchell to relief or they don't -- the district court did not abuse its discretion in declining to hold an evidentiary hearing. United States v. Howard, 381 F.3d 873, 877-79 (9th Cir. 2004).
II. Defense counsel adequately investigated the possibility of an intoxication defense and reasonably decided against asserting it.
Mitchell argues that his three lawyers -- Deputy Federal Public Defenders Jeffrey Williams and Gregory Bartolomei, and private lawyer John Sears -- failed to adequately investigate the possibility of an intoxication defense for use in the guilt-phase of the trial. The facts show otherwise.
Sears, who had practiced for 28 years and was experienced in criminal defense, was appointed as learned counsel and took the lead on the guilt phase. Williams had 15 years of criminal defense experience, had already tried two capital cases and had worked on several other capital cases when he was appointed in this case. Bartolomei had practiced for 23 years, mostly as a criminal defense attorney, and had previously attended the Death Penalty College at the Santa Clara University law school. The Federal Public Defender's Office in Arizona is particularly well-experienced in defending Indian reservation cases.
Defense counsel were well aware of Mitchell's history of substance abuse. They knew about it from various sources, including the report of Vera Ockenfels, the lawyer whom they hired who specializes in developing mitigating evidence. They confronted Mitchell with his statements to FBI agents about his substance abuse, but Mitchell " adamantly" denied that he was under the influence of any substance at the time of the crimes. Unwilling to take Mitchell's word for it, his lawyers dutifully pored over photographs of the crime scene and visited the scene of the crimes themselves looking for any evidence of drinking or drugs. Liquor bottles left behind? Drug paraphernalia? They found nothing.
Mitchell's lawyers also knew that Johnny Orsinger, the only other living person present when the crimes were committed, used drugs and alcohol. Mitchell's lawyers sought to interview him, but Orsinger's lawyer wouldn't allow it. When Mitchell's lawyers subsequently subpoenaed Orsinger, he repeatedly asserted his Fifth Amendment
privilege and refused to answer questions.
In short, counsel investigated the possibility of asserting an intoxication defense, but could find no admissible evidence that Mitchell was intoxicated at the time of the carjacking and murders. To the contrary, Mitchell himself denied being intoxicated, and the manner in which the crimes were committed was inconsistent with a supposed inability to form intent due to intoxication, even if he had been drinking: the carjacking was premeditated and committed in preparation for the trading post robbery; the grandmother and little girl were killed and then dismembered to get rid of witnesses and dispose of evidence; and, with impeccable recall, Mitchell gave the FBI a highly detailed account of the crime and his complicity in it. Mitchell's ability to lead investigators back to the desolate scene of the crime is further indication that Mitchell was not unaware of where he was or what he was doing when the crimes were committed.
Mitchell's lawyers did not ignore the possibility of an intoxication defense. Just the opposite. They investigated it, they discussed it with Mitchell, they attempted to interview Orsinger, they looked for extrinsic evidence, they debated it among themselves, and only then, given the lack of evidence of intoxication and the strong circumstantial evidence to the contrary, did they decide that they would be unlikely to convince a jury to accept voluntary intoxication as a defense to these premeditated crimes. Lawyers who make professional decisions of this type, after a reasonable investigation such as occurred in this case, are " strongly presumed" to have rendered adequate assistance. Cullen v. Pinholster, 563 U.S. 170, 131 S.Ct. 1388, 1403, 179 L.Ed.2d 557 (2011) (internal quotation marks omitted); Edwards v. Ayers, 542 F.3d 759, 772-73 (9th Cir. 2008) ( counsel acts reasonably by not asserting a defense that is not supported by sufficient admissible evidence). That is the situation here. The district court correctly denied Mitchell's § 2255 motion with regard to counsels' decision to forego an intoxication defense at the guilt phase of the trial.
III. Counsel conducted a thorough investigation of mitigating evidence -- social, medical, and psychiatric -- only after which did they make a reasonable strategic decision about what evidence to present and what to forego.
Given the strong evidence of Mitchell's guilt, including his well-corroborated confession, and the lack of any realistic defense, Mitchell's lawyers knew that the rubber-would-meet-the-road in the penalty phase of the trial, so they began to prepare for that part of the case immediately.
The defense team consistently met throughout the case to discuss the possible theories of mitigation. Deputy Federal Public Defender Greg Bartolomei was principally in charge of this aspect of the case. Early on, Bartolomei spoke to Mitchell in detail about the case, his childhood, interests, parents, grandparents, medical history, drug history, and schooling. The defense also hired Vera Ockenfels, a well-known and experienced " mitigation specialist," to marshal mitigating evidence. Ockenfels gathered all available records and interviewed Mitchell's mother, grandparents, uncle, other extended family members, friends, acquaintances, football coach, teachers, and other school
employees. She located and attempted to interview Mitchell's father. Bartolomei traveled to the Navajo reservation with Ockenfels to interview Mitchell's mother, grandparents, uncle, friends, football coach and other employees at Mitchell's school. Deputy Federal Public Defender Jeff Williams separately interviewed Mitchell's mother, Sherry. Sherry mostly talked about herself, and she walked ...